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Table 2 Effects of the Happiness Route, intention-to-treat analysis (all = 108, HR = 58, CC = 50)

From: The long and winding road to happiness: A randomized controlled trial and cost-effectiveness analysis of a positive psychology intervention for lonely people with health problems and a low socio-economic status

  Baseline 3 months 9 months Condition Time Time x condition Effect size over time (FU)
Outcome Group Mean (S.E.) Mean (S.E.) Mean (S.E.) p p p d
Primary outcome  
MHC-SF total HR 2.04 (0.13) 2.07 (0.12) 2.28 (0.12) .362 .018* .902 0.38
CC 1.93 (0.12) 1.96 (0.12) 2.13 (0.13) 0.17
MHC-SF emo HR 2.09 (0.18) 2.40 (0.22) 2.56 (0.20) .649 .012* .603 0.32
CC 2.10 (0.18) 2.19 (0.22) 2.45 (0.21) 0.25
MHC-SF soc HR 1.43 (0.11) 1.57 (0.16) 1.83 (0.16) .791 .026* .457 0.25
CC 1.52 (0.12) 1.54 (0.13) 1.67 (0.13) 0.23
MHC-SF psy HR 2.50 (0.16) 2.33 (0.17) 2.50 (0.16) .247 .359 .640 0.00
CC 2.19 (0.15) 2.21 (0.16) 2.34 (0.16) 0.14
Secondary outcomes
Resilience HR 2.59 (0.10) 2.69 (0.17) 2.77 (0.17) .711 .069 .510 0.17
CC 2.64 (0.12) 2.83 (0.15) 2.75 (0.14) 0.12
Purpose in life HR 14.95 (0.59) 15.65 (0.83) 15.81 (0.89) .233 .213 .679 0.15
CC 14.26 (0.63) 14.66 (0.75) 14.89 (0.78) 0.13
Depression HR 27.05 (1.76) 24.56 (2.29) 21.19 (2.58) .772 .032* .169 0.35
CC 25.04 (1.49) 25.74 (2.08) 23.67 (2.29) 0.10
Quality of life HR 0.45 (0.04) 0.49 (0.07) 0.51 (0.07) .716 .118 .572 0.13
CC 0.46 (0.05) 0.54 (0.06) 0.50 (0.06) 0.08
Loneliness HR 8.65 (0.32) 8.51 (0.52) 7.42 (0.74) .014* .019* .486 0.28
CC 9.41 (0.29) 9.43 (0.39) 8.85 (0.52) 0.19
Participation HR 1.81 (0.21) 1.52 (0.31) 1.47 (0.45) .456 .251 .376 0.13
CC 1.90 (0.21) 1,94 (0.26) 1.71 (0.33) 0.10
  1. FU Follow-up, HR Happiness Route, CC Customized Care, emo emotional, soc social, psy psychological; *p < .05