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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants

From: The long and winding road to happiness: A randomized controlled trial and cost-effectiveness analysis of a positive psychology intervention for lonely people with health problems and a low socio-economic status

  All (n = 108) Happiness Route (n = 58) Control condition (n = 50)
Age, median in years (Q1, Q3)a 60.0 (48.3, 68.0) 59.00 (47.5, 68.0) 61.0 (49.0, 70.3)
Gender: maleb, n (%) 33 (30.6) 16 (27.6) 17 (34.0)
Cultural background: Dutchb, n (%) 92 (85.2) 49 (84.5) 43 (86.0)
Marital status: marriedb, n (%) 17 (15.7) 12 (20.7) 5 (10.0)
Living situation: aloneb, n (%) 77 (71.4) 36 (62.1) 41 (82.0)
Daily activitiesb, n (%)
Paid employment 5 (4.6) 4 (6.9) 1 (2.0)
Unemployed/household 30 (28.2) 15 (25.8) 15 (30.0)
Disability pension 41 (38.0) 26 (44.8) 15 (30.0)
Retired 23 (21.3) 9 (15.5) 14 (28.0)
Other (student, daycare, volunteer work, caregiver, hobby) 9 (8.4) 4 (6.8) 5 (10.0)
Educationb, n (%)
Low 64 (59.4) 33 (57.1) 31 (62.0)
Intermediate 25 (23.6) 13 (23.2) 12 (24.0)
High 18 (17.0) 11 (19.6) 7 (14.0)
Monthly incomeb
< €1000 for singles; <€1500 for couples, n (%) 73 (67.3) 37 (63.2) 36 (72.0)
< €2000 for singles; <€2500 for couples, n (%) 35 (32.7) 21 (36.8) 14 (28.0)
Number of health problems, median (Q1, Q3)a 3.00 (2.00, 4.00) 3.00 (2.00, 4.00 3.50 (2.00, 3.502.0)
Health grade, median (SD)a 6.00 (4.6, 7.0) 6.00 (4.0, 7.0) 6.00 (4.9, 7.0)
Psychotropic drug use, n (%)b 49 (45.4) 25 (43.1) 24 (48.0))
  1. aNo significant differences between intervention and control condition (t-test with p > .05). bNo significant differences between intervention and control condition (χ2 -test with p > .05)