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Table 2 Influence of reduced HRQOL per individual symptoms and symptom combinations

From: Association between fatigue, pain, digestive problems, and sleep disturbances and individuals’ health-related quality of life: a nationwide survey in South Korea

Symptom n (%)a Physical HRQOL Mental HRQOL
B coefficientb (95% CI) P-value B coefficientb (95% CI) P-value
Individual symptom
 Fatigue (yes) 591 (53.7) −2.12 (− 2.76, −1.47) <  0.001 − 2.95 (−3.72, − 2.19) <  0.001
 Pain (yes) 272 (24.7) −5.63 (− 6.35, − 4.91) <  0.001 − 2.86 (− 3.79, − 1.92) <  0.001
 Digestive problems (yes) 202 (18.4) − 2.02 (− 2.87, − 1.17) <  0.001 −4.18 (− 5.17, − 3.18) <  0.001
 Sleep disturbances (yes) 179 (16.3) −2.35 (− 3.24, − 1.46) <  0.001 − 4.43 (− 5.39, − 3.29) <  0.001
Combinations of symptomsc
 None 424 (38.5) Reference   Reference  
 Fatigue only 273 (24.8) −0.61 (− 1.35, 0.14) 0.109 −1.85 (−2.77, − 0.93) <  0.001
 Pain only 31 (2.8) −5.96 (− 7.77, − 4.16) <  0.001 −1.27 (− 3.50, 0.97) 0.266
 Fatigue + pain 90 (8.2) −6.09 (−7.21, −4.97) <  0.001 − 2.97 (− 4.35, − 1.58) <  0.001
 Fatigue + digestive problems 38 (3.5) −0.98 (− 2.59, 0.63) 0.231 − 4.16 (− 6.14, − 2.17) <  0.001
 Fatigue + sleep disturbances 35 (3.2) −0.73 (− 2.43, 0.94) 0.389 −3.34 (− 5.43, − 1.24) 0.002
 Fatigue + pain + digestive problems 35 (3.2) −4.23 (− 5.94, − 2.51) <  0.001 − 4.43 (− 6.74, − 2.50) <  0.001
 Fatigue + pain + sleep disturbances 29 (2.6) −6.16 (− 8.00, − 4.33) <  0.001 − 4.51 (− 6.78, − 2.25) <  0.001
 All four symptoms 72 (6.5) −6.88 (−8.18, − 5.58) <  0.001 −7.63 (− 9.24, − 6.02) <  0.001
  1. HRQOL health-related quality of life, CI confidence interval. aPercentage (%) is the number (n) divided by 1100 (total N). bUnstandardized B coefficient. cSeven patterns out of 16 symptom patterns were excluded from the analysis (n = 73). Linear regression model for physical and mental HRQOL after adjusting for sex, age, region, occupation, income, education, marital status, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and disease history