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Table 1 Participants’ general characteristics

From: Association between fatigue, pain, digestive problems, and sleep disturbances and individuals’ health-related quality of life: a nationwide survey in South Korea

Characteristic Men (n = 545) Women (n = 555) Total (N = 1100)
Age (years)
  ≤ 29 101 (18.5) 92 (16.6) 193 (17.5)
 30–39 98 (18.0) 95 (17.1) 193 (17.5)
 40–49 114 (20.9) 112 (20.2) 226 (20.5)
 50–59 112 (20.6) 107 (19.3) 219 (19.9)
  ≥ 60 120 (22.0) 149 (26.8) 269 (24.5)
 Mean ± SD 46.4 ± 15.5 47.9 ± 16.0 47.2 ± 15.8
Region
 Capital district 276 (50.6) 276 (49.7) 552 (50.2)
 Kangwon 16 (2.9) 18 (3.2) 34 (3.1)
 Chungcheong 57 (10.5) 59 (10.6) 116 (10.5)
 Jeolla 54 (9.9) 58 (10.5) 112 (10.2)
 Gyeongsang 142 (26.1) 144 (25.9) 286 (26.0)
Occupation
 Office 137 (25.1) 103 (18.6) 240 (21.8)
 Service 340 (62.4) 223 (40.2) 563 (51.2)
 Othera 68 (12.5) 229 (41.3) 297 (27.0)
Household incomeb (USD)
  < 300 (<  3000) 132 (24.2) 146 (26.3) 278 (25.3)
 300–399 (3000–3999) 140 (25.7) 138 (24.9) 278 (25.3)
 400–499 (4000–4999) 114 (20.9) 118 (21.3) 232 (21.1)
  ≥ 500 (5000) 159 (29.2) 153 (27.6) 312 (28.4)
Education (over college) 277 (50.8) 199 (35.9) 476 (43.3)
Marital status (married) 361 (66.2) 391 (70.5) 752 (68.4)
Smoking (current smoker) 268 (49.2) 14 (2.5) 282 (25.6)
Alcohol consumption (current drinker) 485 (89.0) 309 (55.7) 794 (72.2)
Physical activity (high) 136 (25.0) 100 (18.0) 236 (21.5)
Disease history (yes)c 174 (31.9) 146 (26.3) 320 (29.1)
Symptom (3–21)d
 Fatigue 7.0 ± 3.1 7.2 ± 3.4 7.1 ± 3.3
 Pain 4.8 ± 2.7 5.5 ± 3.5 5.1 ± 3.2
 Digestive problems 4.4 ± 2.2 4.9 ± 2.7 4.6 ± 2.5
 Sleep disturbances 4.3 ± 2.4 4.9 ± 3.1 4.6 ± 2.8
HRQOL (0–100)e
 Physical (PCS) 53.4 ± 5.2 51.4 ± 6.9 52.4 ± 6.2
 Mental (MCS) 52.7 ± 6.4 52.6 ± 6.7 52.6 ± 6.5
  1. Data are presented as n (%) or mean ± standard deviation. HRQOL health-related quality of life, PCS SF-12 Physical Component Summary, MCS SF-12 Mental Component Summary, SD standard deviation, USD United States dollars. aIncluding student, housewife, retired and unemployed. bunit: 10,000 South Korean won. cDisease history comprised one or more of the following: hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, or cancer. dScore range of each symptoms, and higher scores were interpreted as experiencing more symptom(s). eScore range of PCS and MCS; higher scores indicated better quality of life