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Table 5 Mean EQ-VAS score at T1, conventional change and retrospective change between EQ-VAS score at T1 and T2 and magnitude of recall bias and response shift

From: Conventional and retrospective change in health-related quality of life of trauma patients: an explorative observational follow-up study

 EQ-VAS T1Mean EQ-5D T2Mean Then TestConventional changeRetrospective changeICCαMean Recall TestRecall biasResponse shiftICC§
Total56.3$
(SD 20)
72.6
(SD 17.0)
54.7
(SD 21.0)
16.3
(SD 19)
17.9
(SD 18)
0.483*55.7
(SD 21.0)
−0.62
(SD 20)
−1.59
(SD 19)
0.783*
Gender
 Males58.3
(SD 21)
73.4
(SD 17.0)
56.4
(SD 22.5)
15.0
(SD 12)
17.0
(SD 14)
0.464*57.6
(SD 22.5)
−0.74
(SD 21)
−1.94
(SD 19)
0.793*
 Females53.8
(SD 19)
71.7
(SD 16.9)
52.7
(SD 18.8)
17.9
(SD 19)
19.0
(SD 18)
0.503*53.3
(SD 18.7)
−0.46
(SD 17)
−1.14
(SD 19)
0.768*
Age
  < 65 years54.1 (SD 20)72.1
(SD 17.9)
51.4
(SD 21.2)
17.9
(SD 19)
20.7
(SD 19)
0.459*51.7
(SD 20.9)
−2.46
(SD 18)
−2.74
(SD 20)
0.740*
 65+ years58.7
(SD 21)
73.2
(SD 15.9)
58.3
(SD 20.2)
14.5
(SD 20)
14.8
(SD 16)
0.498*60.0
(SD 20.2)
1.362
(SD 21)
−0.34
(SD 18)
0.825*
Educational level1
 Low56.1 (SD 21)69.7
(SD 16.9)
54.6
(SD 19.6)
13.6
(SD 21)
15.1
(SD 19)
0.561*55.8
(SD 20.7)
−0.32
(SD 20)
−1.51
(SD 19)
0.798*
 Middle57.4 (SD 21)74.3
(SD 17.2)
54.8
(SD 22.7)
17.0
(SD 20)
19.6 (SD 18)0.402*55.7
(SD 22.5)
−1.71
(SD 21)
−2.61
(SD 21)
0.773*
 High55.1 (SD 20)72.8
(SD 16.3)
54.3
(SD 20.0)
17.7
(SD 17)
18.5
(SD 16)
0.519*55.4
(SD 19.6)
0.32
(SD 18)
−0.80
(SD 16)
0.784*
Comorbidity status2
 No comorbidity57.3
(SD 20)
77.0
(SD 16.3)
56.2
(SD 20.9)
19.7
(SD 20)
20.8
(SD 19)
0.524*56.7
(SD 20.5)
−0.58
(SD 20)
−1.06
(SD 19)
0.772*
 Comorbidity55.6
(SD 20)
69.6
(SD 16.6)
53.9
(SD 20.8)
14.1
(SD 19)
15.7
(SD 17)
0.421*55.3
(SD 21.1)
−0.27
(SD 20)
−1.676 (SD 19)0.793*
ISS3
 ISS < 1657.3
(SD 20)
73.1
(SD 16.8)
55.9
(SD 20.3)
15.8
(SD 19)
17.11
(SD 17)
0.503*56.6
(SD 20.4)
−0.69
(SD 19)
−1.31
(SD 19)
0.802*
 ISS > = 1644.6
(SD 20)
66.5
(SD 18.3)
37.9
(SD 23.6)
21.9
(SD 23)
28.5
(SD 19)
0.19943.8
(SD 25.3)
−0.77
(SD 29)
−6.66
(SD 27)
0.661*
TBI
 No TBI54.5
(SD 20)
71.8
(SD 17.0)
54.3
(SD 20.6)
17.3
(SD 20)
17.5
(SD 18)
0.503*55.1
(SD 20.5)
0.57
(SD 20)
−0.22
(SD 19)
0.787*
 TBI60.5
(SD 21)
74.4
(SD 16.7)
55.8
(SD 22.1)
13.9
(SD 17)
18.6
(SD 17)
0.445*57.2
(SD 22.2)
−3.37
(SD 19)
−4.75
(SD 18)
0.765*
PTSD symptoms4&
 No PTSD56.9
(SD 20)
73.7
(SD 16.3)
55.6
(SD 21.1)
16.8
(SD 19)
18.2
(SD 18)
0.495*56.2
(SD 20.8)
−0.72
(SD 19)
−1.39
(SD 18)
0.774*
 PTSD51.8
(SD 21)
58.1
(SD 17.7)
44.2
(SD 20.8)
6.2
(SD 22)
13.9
(SD 19)
0.556*44.5
(SD 21.2)
−7.29
(SD 20)
−7.61
(SD 19)
0.753*
  1. SD standard deviation, ICC intraclass correlation coefficient, ISS injury severity score, TBI traumatic brain injury, PTSD posttraumatic stress disorder
  2. α ICC corresponds to the correlation between conventional and retrospective change
  3. § ICC corresponds to the correlation between recall bias and response shift
  4. $Patients who completed the EQ-5D at 1 week and 3 months and the then-test and recall-test for 1 week at 3 months after sustaining an injury
  5. &PTSD symptoms measured with the Impact of Event Scale (IES) 3 months post-injury
  6. 110 missing values, 210 missing values, 32 missing values, 458 missing values