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Table 2 Mean EQ-5D-3 L summary score at T1, conventional change and retrospective change between EQ-5D-3 L summary scores at T1 and T2 and magnitude of recall bias and response shift

From: Conventional and retrospective change in health-related quality of life of trauma patients: an explorative observational follow-up study

 nMean EQ-5D T1Mean EQ-5D T2Mean Then TestConventional changeRetrospective changeICCaMean Recall TestRecall biasResponse shiftICCb
Total550c0.482
(SD 0.30)
0.735
(SD 0.24)
0.419
(SD 0.35)
0.254
(SD 0.29)
0.316
(SD 0.31)
0.489*0.462
(SD 0.34)
−0.020
(SD 0.30)
− 0.063
(SD 0.31)
0.681*
Gender
 Males3080.500
(SD 0.31)
0.741
(SD 0.25)
0.450
(SD 0.36)
0.242
(SD 0.31)
0.292
(SD 0.33)
0.545*0.506
(SD 0.35)
0.007
(SD 0.31)
−0.050
(SD 0.30)
0.705*
 Females2420.459
(SD 0.28)
0.728
(SD 0.23)
0.380
(SD 0.33)
0.269
(0.26)
0.348
(SD 0.30)
0.391*0.405
(SD 0.33)
−0.054
(SD 0.29)
− 0.079
(SD 0.31)
0.648*
Age
  < 65 years2850.452
(SD 0.29)
0.741
(SD 0.24)
0.373
(SD 0.34)
0.289
(SD 0.29)
0.369
(SD 0.32)
0.516*0.425
(SD 0.34)
−0.028
(SD 0.31)
− 0.080
(SD 0.30)
0.749*
 65+ years2650.513
(SD 0.30)
0.729
(SD 0.24)
0.469
(SD 0.35)
0.216
(SD 0.29)
0.260
(SD 0.30)
0.435*0.501
(SD 0.35)
−0.012
(SD 0.29)
− 0.044
(SD 0.31)
0.608*
Educational level1
 Low1270.503
(SD 0.33)
0.697
(SD 0.26)
0.443
(SD 0.37)
0.193
(SD 0.30)
0.254
(SD 0.30)
0.439*0.489
(SD 0.35)
−0.015
(SD 0.32)
− 0.060
(SD 0.32)
0.661*
 Middle2140.492
(SD 0.30)
0.740
(SD 0.25)
0.406
(SD 0.350)
0.248
(SD 0.30)
0.334
(SD 0.30)
0.458*0.451
(SD 0.36)
−0.041
(SD 0.32)
−0.086
(SD 0.31)
0.717*
 High1990.447
(SD 0.27)
0.752
(SD 0.23)
0.403
(SD 0.34)
0.305
(SD 0.26)
0.349
(SD 0.33)
0.543*0.448
(SD 0.33)
0.012
(SD 0.26)
−0.044
(SD 0.28)
0.650*
Comorbidity status2
 No comorbidity2310.499
(SD 0.28)
0.784
(SD 0.24)
0.437
(SD 0.33)
0.285
(SD 0.28)
0.347
(SD 0.31)
0.532*0.480
(SD 0.32)
−0.019
(SD 0.30)
−0.062
(SD 0.29)
0.736*
 Comorbidity3090.472
(SD 0.31)
0.702
(SD 0.24)
0.407
(SD 0.36)
0.230
(SD 0.29)
0.295
(SD 0.32)
0.450*0.452
(SD 0.36)
−0.020
(SD 0.30)
−0.065
(SD 0.32)
0.655*
ISS3
 ISS < 165130.493
(SD 0.29)
0.741
(SD 0.24)
0.433
(SD 0.34)
0.248
(SD 0.29)
0.308
(SD 0.31)
0.503*0.474
(SD 0.34)
−0.019
(SD 0.30)
−0.060
(SD 0.30)
0.670*
 ISS > = 16350.350
(SD 0.30)
0.659
(SD 0.28)
0.229
(SD 0.40)
0.309
(SD 0.29)
0.429
(SD 0.36)
0.315*0.289
(SD 0.38)
−0.061
(SD 0.34)
−0.120
(SD 0.39)
0.740*
TBI
 No TBI3840.432
(SD 0.28)
0.721
(SD 0.24)
0.383
(SD 0.33)
0.290
(SD 0.28)
0.338
(SD 0.31)
0.461*0.428
(SD 0.33)
−0.004
(SD 0.30)
−0.048
(SD 0.31)
0.656*
 TBI1660.598
(SD 0.30)
0.768
(SD 0.25)
0.501
(SD 0.38)
0.171
(SD 0.28)
0.267
(SD 0.31)
0.525*0.539
(SD 0.37)
−0.058
(SD 0.29)
−0.096
(SD 0.29)
0.742*
PTSD symptoms4d
 No PTSD4510.490
(SD 0.29)
0.759
(SD 0.22)
0.423
(SD 0.34)
0.269
(SD 0.28)
0.337
(SD 0.31)
0.518*0.471
(SD 0.34)
−0.019
(SD 0.30)
−0.068
(SD 0.29)
0.684*
 PTSD410.345
(SD 0.35)
0.487
(SD 0.35)
0.270
(SD 0.43)
0.142
(SD 0.41)
0.216
(SD 0.35)
0.294*0.252
(SD 0.36)
−0.093
(SD 0.37)
− 0.075
(SD 0.45)
0.780*
  1. SD standard deviation, ICC intraclass correlation coefficient, ISS injury severity score, TBI traumatic brain injury, PTSD posttraumatic stress disorder
  2. a ICC corresponds to the correlation between conventional and retrospective change
  3. b ICC corresponds to the correlation between recall bias and response shift
  4. cPatients who completed the EQ-5D at 1 week and 3 months and the then-test and recall-test for 1 week at 3 months after sustaining an injury
  5. dPTSD symptoms measured with the Impact of Event Scale (IES) 3 months post-injury
  6. 110 missing values, 210 missing values, 32 missing values, 458 missing values
  7. *p < 0.05