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Table 1 Demographic and basic characteristics did not differ between the non-responders (n=251) and the QOLIBRI cohort (n=135) regarding most of the analyzed parameters. However, patients of the QOLIBRI cohort gained better function at discharge from neurorehabilitation. TBI severity: mild (GCS 13-15), moderate (GCS 9-12), severe (GCS 3-8); mobile functional status represents a modified Rankin Scale of 0 to 3; immobile functional status represents a modified Rankin Scale of 4 to 5

From: Quality of life up to 10 years after traumatic brain injury: a cross-sectional analysis

  Main unit
n = 439
Non-responder
n = 251
QOLIBRI cohort
n = 135
p-Value
TBI severity mild/ moderate/ severe/ n.s. (%) b 9.8/ 8.4/ 32.1/ 49.7 8.0/ 6.4/ 33.5/ 52.1 13.3/ 13.3/ 35.6/ 37.8 0.08
TBI etiology traffic accidents/ falls/ others (%) a 45.1/ 45.3/ 9.6 43.4/ 47.0/ 9.6 48.8/43.9/ 7.3 0.22
Age at TBI (mean ± SEM) b 53.4 ± 2.4 51.03 ± 1.32 47.5 ± 1.7 0.08
Age at survey (mean ± SEM) b 56.7 ± 1.0 56.2 ± 1.3 53.1 ± 1.6 0.13
Time since TBI (mean ± SEM) b 5.4 ± 0.1 5.2 ± 0.2 5.7 ± 0.3 0.14
Sex distribution male/ female (%) a 74/ 26 73/ 27 76/ 24 0.63
Decompressive craniectomy (%) a 30 32 27 0.42
ICP monitoring or permanent shunt device (%) a 60 62 57 0.38
Tracheostomy (%) a 50 52 44 0.23
Time to onset of neurorehabilitationb (days, mean ± SEM) 29 ± 1.6 29.8 ± 2.5 26.5 ± 2.3 0.76
Duration of neurorehabilitationb
(days, mean ± SEM)
49.7 ± 2.3 51.8 ± 3.3 38.8 ± 2.9 0.08
Functional status at admission
(mobile (mRS 0–3)/ immobile (mRS 4–5)/ n.c. (%)) a
(mean ± SEM) b
8.7/ 88.8/ 2.5
4.53 ± 0.04
10.8/ 89.2/ 0
4.53 ± 0.06
5.2/ 94.1/ 0.7
4.6 ± 0.07
0.09
0.85
Functional status at discharge
(mobile (mRS 0–3)/ immobile (mRS 4–5)/ n.c. (%)) a
(mean ± SEM) b
61.5/ 36/ 2.5
2.95 ± 0.07
58.6/ 41/ 0.4
3.13 ± 0.1
80.7/ 18.5/ 0.8
2.25 ± 0.1
< 0.001*
<  0.001*
  1. n.c. not classified in the medical record, n.s. not specified in the medical record, TBI: traumatic brain injury, ICP: intracranial pressure, mRS: modified Rankin Scale
  2. a Fisher test for categorical variables
  3. b Mann-Whitney-U test for numeric variables
  4. * statistical difference with p <0.05