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Table 3 Summary of differential item function (DIF) by gender, age, and functional level for J-EAT-10

From: Item analysis of the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) by the Rasch model: a secondary analysis of cross-sectional survey data obtained among community-dwelling elders

Item (abbreviated) Gendera Ageb Functional levelc
Uniform Non-uniform Uniform Non-uniform Uniform Non-uniform
F(df) p F(df) p F(df) p F(df) p F(df) p F(df) p
1. Lose weight 0.35 (1) 0.556 1.87 (5) 0.097 0.06 (3) 0.979 1.22 (15) 0.250 0.63 (3) 0.598 1.05 (15) 0.405
2. Go out meals 0.07 (1) 0.789 1.22 (5) 0.296 3.22 (3) 0.022 1.22 (15) 0.248 3.98 (3) 0.008 0.62 (15) 0.857
3. Liquids effort 0.86 (1) 0.353 1.44 (5) 0.207 0.53 (3) 0.664 0.98 (15) 0.474 2.11 (3) 0.097 0.56 (15) 0.904
4. Solids effort 0.21 (1) 0.645 1.06 (5) 0.381 0.27 (3) 0.844 0.82 (15) 0.661 1.04 (3) 0.373 0.60 (15) 0.879
5. Pills effort 4.24 (1) 0.040 0.03 (5) 1.000 1.21 (3) 0.304 1.46 (15) 0.115 2.05 (3) 0.105 0.83 (15) 0.640
6. Painful 2.48 (1) 0.116 0.95 (5) 0.449 0.63 (3) 0.597 1.46 (15) 0.114 1.35 (3) 0.258 0.67 (15) 0.819
7. Pleasure eat 0.50 (1) 0.481 0.14 (5) 0.984 1.39 (3) 0.245 0.31 (15) 0.995 0.93 (3) 0.426 1.15 (15) 0.307
8. Stick throat 2.85 (1) 0.092 1.35 (5) 0.243 0.19 (3) 0.905 0.83 (15) 0.640 0.57 (3) 0.634 0.70 (15) 0.786
9. Cough 2.26 (1) 0.133 0.65 (5) 0.658 0.43 (3) 0.731 0.85 (15) 0.627 1.19 (3) 0.312 1.33 (15) 0.175
10. Stressful 0.35 (1) 0.555 1.62 (5) 0.151 1.76 (3) 0.153 0.66 (15) 0.828 1.95 (3) 0.121 0.19 (15) 1.000
  1. Significance level p < 0.05 (Bonferroni adjusted p = 0.002)
  2. J-EAT-10 Japanese version of the Eating Assessment Tool, df degrees of freedom
  3. aDichotomized into male (N = 475) / female (N = 669)
  4. bStratified by quartiles: ≤ Q1 ~ 60–70 years (N = 313) / ≤ Q2 ~ 71–77 years (N = 298) / ≤ Q3 ~ 78–83 years (N = 2 63) / > Q ~ 384–99 years (N = 270)
  5. cStratified into four groups: independent (N = 594) / dependent of care 25–89 min per day (N = 265) / dependent of care 90–109 min per day (N = 147) /dependent of care ≥110 min per day (N = 138)