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Table 3 Summary of differential item function (DIF) by gender, age, and functional level for J-EAT-10

From: Item analysis of the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) by the Rasch model: a secondary analysis of cross-sectional survey data obtained among community-dwelling elders

Item (abbreviated)GenderaAgebFunctional levelc
UniformNon-uniformUniformNon-uniformUniformNon-uniform
F(df)pF(df)pF(df)pF(df)pF(df)pF(df)p
1. Lose weight0.35 (1)0.5561.87 (5)0.0970.06 (3)0.9791.22 (15)0.2500.63 (3)0.5981.05 (15)0.405
2. Go out meals0.07 (1)0.7891.22 (5)0.2963.22 (3)0.0221.22 (15)0.2483.98 (3)0.0080.62 (15)0.857
3. Liquids effort0.86 (1)0.3531.44 (5)0.2070.53 (3)0.6640.98 (15)0.4742.11 (3)0.0970.56 (15)0.904
4. Solids effort0.21 (1)0.6451.06 (5)0.3810.27 (3)0.8440.82 (15)0.6611.04 (3)0.3730.60 (15)0.879
5. Pills effort4.24 (1)0.0400.03 (5)1.0001.21 (3)0.3041.46 (15)0.1152.05 (3)0.1050.83 (15)0.640
6. Painful2.48 (1)0.1160.95 (5)0.4490.63 (3)0.5971.46 (15)0.1141.35 (3)0.2580.67 (15)0.819
7. Pleasure eat0.50 (1)0.4810.14 (5)0.9841.39 (3)0.2450.31 (15)0.9950.93 (3)0.4261.15 (15)0.307
8. Stick throat2.85 (1)0.0921.35 (5)0.2430.19 (3)0.9050.83 (15)0.6400.57 (3)0.6340.70 (15)0.786
9. Cough2.26 (1)0.1330.65 (5)0.6580.43 (3)0.7310.85 (15)0.6271.19 (3)0.3121.33 (15)0.175
10. Stressful0.35 (1)0.5551.62 (5)0.1511.76 (3)0.1530.66 (15)0.8281.95 (3)0.1210.19 (15)1.000
  1. Significance level p < 0.05 (Bonferroni adjusted p = 0.002)
  2. J-EAT-10 Japanese version of the Eating Assessment Tool, df degrees of freedom
  3. aDichotomized into male (N = 475) / female (N = 669)
  4. bStratified by quartiles: ≤ Q1 ~ 60–70 years (N = 313) / ≤ Q2 ~ 71–77 years (N = 298) / ≤ Q3 ~ 78–83 years (N = 2 63) / > Q ~ 384–99 years (N = 270)
  5. cStratified into four groups: independent (N = 594) / dependent of care 25–89 min per day (N = 265) / dependent of care 90–109 min per day (N = 147) /dependent of care ≥110 min per day (N = 138)