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Table 3 Correlation between PedsQL™ 4.0 HRQoL scores and demographic factors

From: Health-related quality of life among children with transfusion-dependent thalassemia: A cross-sectional study in Malaysia

Demographic Mean (SD) Scores
Total Summary Score Physical Health Summary Psychosocial Health Summary Emotional Functioning Social Functioning School Functioning
All Patients (n = 368) 80.12 (13.87) 82.21 (16.82) 79.39 (14.81) 78.95 (19.11) 88.80 (14.02) 69.52 (20.92)
Age (Years)
 2–4.9 (n = 36) 86.18 (13.15) 93.19 (7.69) 83.60 (15.86) 77.63 (19.43) 94.44 (9.78) 74.27 (37.43)
 5–7.9 (n = 62) 80.96 (12.62) 83.57 (15.00) 80.10 (14.02) 77.61 (18.18) 91.61 (11.52) 71.08 (19.38)
 8–12.9 (n = 134) 80.17 (14.28) 81.48 (17.57) 79.73 (14.78) 79.97 (19.13) 89.10 (13.47) 69.89 (19.86)
 13–18.9 (n = 136) 78.04 (13.82) 79.32 (17.52) 77.57 (14.81) 78.89 (19.60) 85.64 (15.82) 67.53 (15.82)
p-Value¥ 0.005* < 0.001* 0.056 0.706 0.001* 0.012*
Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient* −0.157* −0.197* −0.126* 0.036 −0.206* −0.149*
Gender
 Female (n = 190) 79.26 (14.23) 80.13 (18.38) 78.95 (14.99) 79.06 (19.89) 88.24 (14.39) 68.87 (14.39)
 Male (n = 178) 81.05 (13.46) 84.44 (14.70) 79.85 (14.64) 78.82 (18.31) 89.40 (13.62) 70.24 (20.24)
p-Value¶ 0.254 0.05 0.597 0.63 0.387 0.805
Point Biserial Correlation −0.065 −0.128* −0.03 0.006 −0.041 − 0.033
Effect Size (Cohen’s d) − 0.129 − 0.258 −0.06 0.012 −0.083 − 0.064
Source of survey
 Parent-Proxy reported (n = 257) 80.52 (13.77) 82.88 (16.44) 79.69 (14.75) 78.94 (18.69) 89.69 (13.42) 69.47 (21.92)
 Self-Reported (n = 111) 79.18 (14.14) 80.60 (17.68) 78.67 (15.01) 78.95 (20.21) 86.68 (15.20) 69.66 (18.42)
p-Value¶ 0.405 0.263 0.528 0.738 0.036* 0.738
Point Biserial Correlation −0.043 −0.062 −0.031 0.0003 −0.098 0.004
Effect Size (Cohen’s d) −0.096 −0.136 − 0.069 < 0.001 − 0.215 0.009
Years of Transfusion
 Less than 10 years (n = 242) 81.25 (13.34) 83.51 (16.32) 8045 (14.22) 79.21 (18.43) 90.66 (12.25) 70.53 (21.56)
 More than 10 years (n = 126) 77.92 (14.65) 79.67 (17.55) 77.31 (15.77) 78.43 (20.47) 85.16 (16.41) 67.59 (19.59)
p-Value¶ 0.042* 0.045* 0.08 0.969 0.001* 0.105
Point Biserial Correlation 0.114* 0.108* 0.101 0.019 0.186* 0.067
Effect Size (Cohen’s d) 0.24 0.228 0.213 0.041 0.398 0.14
Presence of Iron Overload Complication
 Absent (n = 267) 81.00 (13.61) 83.62 (16.21) 80.09 (14.76) 79.17 (19.12) 89.64 (13.52) 70.48 (21.30)
 Present (n = 101) 77.78 (14.34) 78.44 (17.90) 77.52 (14.88) 78.34 (19.21) 86.57 (15.11) 67.01 (19.76)
p-Value¶ 0.044 0.011 0.094 0.743 0.068 0.091
Point Biserial Correlation 0.103 0.137 0.078 0.019 0.098 0.074
Effect Size (Cohen’s d) 0.233 0.31 0.174 0.043 0.22 0.166
 Endocrine (n = 57) 80.12 (13.02) 80.26 (18.45) 80.00 (13.29) 81.91 (18.11) 87.36 (15.39) 70.31 (17.78)
 Liver (n = 24) 74.38 (16.57) 74.61 (17.42) 74.31 (17.22) 82.92 (19.67) 86.45 (16.38) 63.54 (24.02)
 Cardiac (n = 3) 83.33 (11.16) 83.33 (10.04) 83.33 (12.01) 83.33 (20.82) 86.67 (10.41) 80.00 (18.03)
 Multi-system (n = 20) 75.44 (14.49) 79.13 (17.24) 74.18 (15.36) 74.8 (19.86) 84.25 (12.80) 61.84 (18.42)
p-Value¥ 0.155 0.074 0.217 0.241 0.175 0.149
Number of Iron Chelating Agents Used
 Monotherapy (n = 304) 81.41 (12.87) 83.27 (15.71) 80.76 (13.75) 80.18 (18.14) 90.28 (12.67) 70.95 (20.47)
 Dual Therapy (n = 64) 73.88 (16.75) 77.03 (20.84) 72.76 (17.84) 72.95 (22.52) 81.61 (17.71) 62.63 (17.71)
p-Value¶ 0.001* 0.049* < 0.001* 0.032* < 0.001* 0.008*
Point Biserial Correlation 0.204* 0.14* 0.203* 0.142* 0.233* 0.15*
Effect Size (Cohen’s d) 0.554 0.374 0.551 0.381 0.635 0.401
Route of Iron Chelation Administration
 Subcutaneous (SC) Only (n = 42) 80.03 (12.46) 79.89 (16.33) 80.08 (13.27) 80.85 (20.09) 89.14 (12.49) 69.62 (19.91)
 Oral (PO) Only (n = 268) 81.65 (12.93) 83.69 (15.70) 80.93 (13.89) 80.09 (18.01) 90.45 (12.66) 71.39 (20.55)
 Combination of SC + PO (n = 58) 72.94 (16.87) 76.84 (20.92) 71.57 (17.66) 72.11 (22.22) 80.71 (18.10) 60.56 (12.45)
p-Value¥ 0.001* 0.041* < 0.001* 0.049* < 0.001* 0.004*
Iron Chelation Therapy
 SC Desferrioxamine (n = 42) 80.02 (12.46) 79.87 (16.33) 80.08 (13.27) 80.85 (20.09) 89.14 (12.49) 69.62 (19.91)
 PO Deferasirox (n = 233) 81.58 (12.89) 83.64 (15.81) 80.85 (13.78) 80.16 (17.80) 90.43 (12.78) 70.98 (20.66)
 PO Deferiprone (n = 29) 82.03 (13.57) 85.27 (13.44) 80.96 (14.71) 79.28 (18.59) 90.71 (12.30) 72.63 (20.34)
 SC Desferrioxamine + PO Deferiprone (n = 41) 76.13 (16.10) 81.46 (19.54) 74.25 (17.67) 76.97 (22.49) 81.67 (18.86) 62.36 (19.98)
 SC Desferrioxamine + PO Deferasirox (n = 17) 65.62 (16.76) 66.25 (20.64) 65.41 (16.51) 60.94 (17.52) 78.53 (16.56) 56.76 (24.49)
 PO Deferiprone + PO Deferasirox (n = 6) 82.60 (13.70) 78.75 (21.92) 83.89 (16.92) 80.83 (25.96) 90.00 (11.40) 80.83 (18.28)
p-Value¥ 0.003* 0.013* 0.002* 0.011* 0.007* 0.031*
History of Serious Adverse Event with Iron Chelation Therapy
 No (n = 345) 80.16 (13.85) 82.22 (16.90) 79.44 (14.74) 78.93 (18.96) 88.82 (13.76) 69.65 (20.80)
 Yes (n = 23) 79.62 (14.52) 82.02 (15.76) 78.58 (16.37) 79.09 (21.95) 88.57 (18.04) 67.37 (23.41)
p-Value¶ 0.913 0.815 0.912 0.807 0.558 0.692
Point Biserial Correlation 0.009 0.003 0.013 −0.002 0.004 0.025
Effect Size (Cohen’s d) 0.039 0.012 0.058 −0.008 0.017 0.109
  1. Values of scores are presented as Mean (Standard Deviation); n number SC, subcutaneous, PO oral p-value¥, using Kruskal Wallis Test, p-value¶ using Mann Whitney U Test
  2. Spearman’s Rank Correlation and Point Biserial Correlation coefficients which are bold and marked * indicate p-values < 0.05
  3. Effect Size (Cohen’s d Interpreted as d = 0.2–0.5 (Small), d = 0.5–0.8 (Moderate) and d > 0.8 (Large)