Skip to main content

Table 5 LEIPAD ‘Depression and Anxiety’ scale: ordinal logistic regressions (cumulative logit models)

From: Health-related quality of life among community-dwelling people aged 80 years and over: a cross-sectional study in France

  Bivariate ordinal
logistic regression
Multivariate ordinal logistic regression a
 Prevalence of ‘poor’ HRQoL (%)OR (95% CI)p-valueAOR (95% CI)p-value
 Male22.0Ref Ref 
 Female33.02.44 (1.40–4.27)0.00182.24 (1.20–4.16)0.0111
 (years)84.4 (3.4) b1.06 (0.98–1.16)0.13491.02 (0.93–1.11)0.7051
Marital status
 Married or with a partner28.8Ref   
 Never-married, widowed, divorced27.01.27 (0.73–2.20)0.3939  
Educational level
 High school or higher education21.1Ref   
 Pre-high school30.21.39 (0.71–2.71)0.3382  
Driving a car
 No37.92.48 (1.39–4.42)0.0021  
Hospital admission during the previous 12 months
 Yes36.61.47 (0.77–2.80)0.2460  
Number of health problems5.2 (2.0) b1.23 (1.07–1.41)0.0043  
Life events during the previous 12 months
  Yes35.31.90 (1.04–3.49)0.0383  
Poor health
  No21.6Ref Ref 
  Yes47.73.42 (1.77–6.61)0.00032.56 (1.27–5.13)0.0082
Daily care of a relative or friend
  Yes46.42.57 (1.20–5.51)0.0152  
  No20.9Ref Ref 
  Yes51.33.78 (1.89–7.55)0.00023.09 (1.48–6.42)0.0026
Serious illness of a relative or friend
  No22.5Ref Ref 
  Yes41.72.41 (1.29–4.52)0.00601.97 (0.99–3.92)0.0526
Problems(s) with offspring
  Yes30.81.88 (0.87–4.08)0.1094  
Relational problem(s) with friends or relatives
  Yes50.02.82 (0.84–9.46)0.0939  
Unsatisfactory environment
  Yes46.23.25 (1.10–9.60)0.0333  
Perceived modest income
  Yes39.22.24 (1.21–4.15)0.0100  
Financial worries
  Yes12.51.12 (0.60–2.09)0.7260  
  1. Ordinal logistic regressions: (1) LEIPAD ‘Depression and Anxiety’ categorized score (‘poor’, ‘average’ or ‘good’ HRQoL) was used as the dependent variable. (2) Independent variables were entered as categorical variables, except for age and number of health problems which were entered as continuous variables. (3) OR odds ratio; CI confidence interval; AOR adjusted odds ratio
  2. a Multiple regression: adjusted for sex, age and for all variables included in the model
  3. b Mean (SD) in the ‘poor’ HRQoL category
  4. Statistical significance is shown in bold type