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Table 5 LEIPAD ‘Depression and Anxiety’ scale: ordinal logistic regressions (cumulative logit models)

From: Health-related quality of life among community-dwelling people aged 80 years and over: a cross-sectional study in France

   Bivariate ordinal
logistic regression
Multivariate ordinal logistic regression a
  Prevalence of ‘poor’ HRQoL (%) OR (95% CI) p-value AOR (95% CI) p-value
Gender
 Male 22.0 Ref   Ref  
 Female 33.0 2.44 (1.40–4.27) 0.0018 2.24 (1.20–4.16) 0.0111
Age
 (years) 84.4 (3.4) b 1.06 (0.98–1.16) 0.1349 1.02 (0.93–1.11) 0.7051
Marital status
 Married or with a partner 28.8 Ref    
 Never-married, widowed, divorced 27.0 1.27 (0.73–2.20) 0.3939   
Educational level
 High school or higher education 21.1 Ref    
 Pre-high school 30.2 1.39 (0.71–2.71) 0.3382   
Driving a car
 Yes 21.5 Ref    
 No 37.9 2.48 (1.39–4.42) 0.0021   
Hospital admission during the previous 12 months
 No 25.6 Ref    
 Yes 36.6 1.47 (0.77–2.80) 0.2460   
Number of health problems 5.2 (2.0) b 1.23 (1.07–1.41) 0.0043   
Life events during the previous 12 months
Illness
  No 25.6 Ref    
  Yes 35.3 1.90 (1.04–3.49) 0.0383   
Poor health
  No 21.6 Ref   Ref  
  Yes 47.7 3.42 (1.77–6.61) 0.0003 2.56 (1.27–5.13) 0.0082
Daily care of a relative or friend
  No 24.3 Ref    
  Yes 46.4 2.57 (1.20–5.51) 0.0152   
Bereavement
  No 20.9 Ref   Ref  
  Yes 51.3 3.78 (1.89–7.55) 0.0002 3.09 (1.48–6.42) 0.0026
Serious illness of a relative or friend
  No 22.5 Ref   Ref  
  Yes 41.7 2.41 (1.29–4.52) 0.0060 1.97 (0.99–3.92) 0.0526
Problems(s) with offspring
  No 27.5 Ref    
  Yes 30.8 1.88 (0.87–4.08) 0.1094   
Relational problem(s) with friends or relatives
  No 26.6 Ref    
  Yes 50.0 2.82 (0.84–9.46) 0.0939   
Unsatisfactory environment
  No 26.5 Ref    
  Yes 46.2 3.25 (1.10–9.60) 0.0333   
Perceived modest income
  No 23.1 Ref    
  Yes 39.2 2.24 (1.21–4.15) 0.0100   
Financial worries
  No 29.6 Ref    
  Yes 12.5 1.12 (0.60–2.09) 0.7260   
  1. Ordinal logistic regressions: (1) LEIPAD ‘Depression and Anxiety’ categorized score (‘poor’, ‘average’ or ‘good’ HRQoL) was used as the dependent variable. (2) Independent variables were entered as categorical variables, except for age and number of health problems which were entered as continuous variables. (3) OR odds ratio; CI confidence interval; AOR adjusted odds ratio
  2. a Multiple regression: adjusted for sex, age and for all variables included in the model
  3. b Mean (SD) in the ‘poor’ HRQoL category
  4. Statistical significance is shown in bold type