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Table 2 Comparison of scores for dimensions on the LEIPAD scale according to the characteristics of the participants

From: Health-related quality of life among community-dwelling people aged 80 years and over: a cross-sectional study in France

  Physical Function Self-Care Depression and Anxiety Cognitive Functioning Social Functioning Sexual Functioning Life Satisfaction
Total 33.3 (20.0–46.7) 0 (0–22.2) 8.3 (0–25.0) 20.0 (6.7–26.7) 22.2 (11.1–33.3) 100 (83.3–100) 33.3 (22.2–38.9)
Gender
 Male 26.7 (13.3–40.0) 0 (0–5.6) 0 (0–16.7) 20.0 (6.7–26.7) 22.2 (11.1–33.3) 83.3 (66.7–100) 33.3 (22.2–38.9)
 Female 33.3 (26.7–53.3) 11.1 (0–27.8) 16.7 (0–25.0) 20.0 (13.3–26.7) 22.2 (11.1–33.3) 100 (83.3–100) 33.3 (27.8–44.4)
p-value < 0.0001 < 0.0001 0.0018 0.3122 0.5249 < 0.0001 0.3153
Age (years)
 r 0.25 0.28 0.15 0.13 0.13 0.16 0.10
p-value 0.0010 0.0002 0.0515 0.0902 0.0778 0.0394 0.1884
Marital status
 Never married, widowed, divorced 33.3 (26.7–53.3) 5.6 (0–27.8) 16.7 (0–25.0) 20.0 (6.7–26.7) 22.2 (11.1–33.3) 100 (100–100) 33.3 (27.8–44.4)
 Married or with a partner 33.3 (20.0–46.7) 0 (0–16.7) 8.3 (0–25.0) 20.0 (6.7–33.3) 22.2 (11.1–33.3) 83.3 (66.7–100) 27.8 (22.2–38.9)
p-value 0.0755 0.1331 0.3615 0.4597 0.2758 0.0002 0.0934
Educational level
 Pre-high school 33.3 (20.0–53.3) 5.6 (0–22.2) 8.3 (0–25.0) 20.0 (6.7–33.3) 22.2 (11.1–33.3) 100 (83.3–100) 33.3 (25.0–38.9)
 High school or higher education 26.7 (20.0–40.0) 0 (0–11.1) 8.3 (0–16.7) 13.3 (6.7–26.7) 22.2 (0–33.3) 83.3 (66.7–100) 33.3 (22.2–44.4)
p-value 0.0700 0.0775 0.4631 0.4462 0.1481 0.0111 0.9059
Living arrangement
 Alone 33.3 (20.0–53.3) 5.6 (0–22.2) 16.7 (0–25.0) 20.0 (6.7–26.7) 22.2 (11.1–33.3) 100 (83.3–100) 33.3 (27.8–44.4)
 Not alone 33.3 (20.0–46.7) 0 (0–16.7) 8.3 (0–25.0) 20.0 (6.7–33.3) 22.2 (11.1–33.3) 100 (66.7–100) 27.8 (22.2–38.9)
p-value 0.2278 0.6906 0.4764 0.5017 0.1645 0.0096 0.0224
Driving a car
 Yes 26.7 (20.0–40.0) 0 (0–5.6) 0 (0–16.7) 20.0 (6.7–26.7) 22.2 (11.1–33.3) 100 (66.7–100) 27.8 (22.2–38.9)
 No 40.0 (26.7–60.0) 22.2 (2.8–33.3) 16.7 (0–33.3) 20.0 (13.3–33.3) 22.2 (11.1–44.4) 100 (83.3–100) 33.3 (27.8–50.0)
p-value < 0.0001 < 0.0001 0.0033 0.0559 0.0174 0.0024 0.0814
Hospital admission during the previous 12 months
 Yes 46.7 (20.0–60.0) 5.6 (0–22.2) 16.7 (0–33.3) 20.0 (6.7–40.0) 22.2 (11.1–33.3) 100 (83.3–100) 33.3 (22.2–38.9)
 No 33.3 (20.0–40.0) 0 (0–16.7) 8.3 (0–25.0) 20.0 (6.7–26.7) 22.2 (11.1–33.3) 100 (66.7–100) 33.3 (22.2–41.7)
p-value 0.0312 0.4275 0.1987 0.5622 0.6219 0.7535 0.6690
Number of health problems
 r 0.50 0.41 0.25 0.21 0.24 0.08 0.30
p-value < 0.0001 < 0.0001 0.0008 0.0050 0.0011 0.2933 < 0.0001
Life events during the previous 12 months
Illness
  Yes 46.7 (33.3–60.0) 11.1 (0–27.8) 16.7 (0–33.3) 20.0 (6.7–40.0) 22.2 (11.1–33.3) 100 (66.7–100) 33.3 (22.2–44.4)
  No 26.7 (20.0–40.0) 0 (0–16.7) 8.3 (0–25.0) 20.0 (13.3–26.7) 22.2 (11.1–33.3) 100 (83.3–100) 33.3 (22.2–38.9)
p-value < 0.0001 0.0030 0.0013 0.1877 0.6222 0.9003 0.4011
Poor health
  Yes 53.3 (40.0–66.7) 22.2 (11.1–44.4) 16.7 (8.3–37.5) 20.0 (13.3–40.0) 33.3 (22.2–55.6) 100 (66.7–100) 38.9 (27.8–55.6)
  No 26.7 (20.0–33.3) 0 (0–5.6) 8.3 (0–16.7) 20.0 (6.7–26.7) 22.2 (11.1–33.3) 100 (83.3–100) 27.8 (22.2–38.9)
p-value < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 0.0134 0.0002 0.8515 0.0003
Daily care of a relative or friend
  Yes 36.7 (26.7–53.3) 11.1 (0–22.2) 16.7 (4.2–41.7) 26.7 (20.0–43.3) 33.3 (11.1–50.0) 100 (83.3–100) 38.9 (27.8–50.0)
  No 33.3 (20.0–46.7) 0 (0–16.7) 8.3 (0–16.7) 13.3 (6.7–26.7) 22.2 (11.1–33.3) 100 (66.7–100) 27.8 (22.2–38.9)
p-value 0.1579 0.2598 0.0048 0.0006 0.1544 0.4544 0.0024
Problem(s) with spouse or partner
  Yes 33.3 (20.0–40.0) 0 (0–5.6) 12.5 (0–16.7) 20.0 (20.0–26.7) 22.2 (11.1–33.3) 100 (83.3–100) 33.3 (27.8–44.4)
  No 33.3 (20.0–46.7) 0 (0–22.2) 8.3 (0–25.0) 20.0 (6.7–33.3) 22.2 (11.1–33.3) 100 (83.3–100) 33.3 (22.2–38.9)
p-value 0.9014 0.1837 0.7097 0.2291 0.4988 0.6643 0.2447
Bereavement
  Yes 33.3 (26.7–53.3) 5.6 (0–22.2) 25.0 (8.3–33.3) 20.0 (6.7–33.3) 33.3 (11.1–44.4) 100 (83.3–100) 38.9 (27.8–50.0)
  No 33.3 (20.0–46.7) 0 (0–16.7) 8.3 (0–16.7) 20.0 (6.7–26.7) 22.2 (11.1–33.3) 100 (75.0–100) 27.8 (22.2–38.9)
p-value 0.0245 0.4799 < 0.0001 0.2856 0.0411 0.9075 0.0278
Serious illness of a relative or friend
  Yes 33.3 (26.7–53.3) 0 (0–16.7) 16.7 (0–33.3) 20.0 (10.0–33.3) 22.2 (11.1–44.4) 100 (83.3–100) 38.9 (27.8–50.0)
  No 33.3 (20.0–46.7) 0 (0–16.7) 8.3 (0–16.7) 20.0 (6.7–26.7) 22.2 (11.1–33.3) 100 (66.7–100) 27.8 (22.2–38.9)
p-value 0.1379 0.7422 0.0029 0.1529 0.2481 0.3812 < 0.0001
Problems(s) with offspring
  Yes 40.0 (26.7–60.0) 11.1 (0–33.3) 16.7 (8.3–25.0) 20.0 (6.7–33.3) 33.3 (11.1–44.4) 83.3 (66.7–100) 44.4 (27.8–55.6)
  No 33.3 (20.0–46.7) 0 (0–16.7) 8.3 (0–25.0) 20.0 (6.7–26.7) 22.2 (11.1–33.3) 100 (83.3–100) 27.8 (22.2–38.9)
p-value 0.0352 0.0157 0.0456 0.5022 0.0044 0.2698 0.0054
Relational problem(s) with friends or relatives
  Yes 46.7 (33.3–60.0) 25.0 (11.1–38.9) 20.8 (8.3–50.0) 26.7 (20.0–66.7) 50.0 (44.4–55.6) 100 (83.3–100) 52.8 (27.8–58.3)
  No 33.3 (20.0–46.7) 0 (0–16.7) 8.3 (0–25.0) 20.0 (6.7–26.7) 22.2 (11.1–33.3) 100 (83.3–100) 33.3 (22.2–38.9)
p-value 0.0137 0.0012 0.0305 0.0894 0.0004 0.6544 0.0528
Unsatisfactory environment
  Yes 40.0 (40.0–50.0) 11.1 (5.6–25.0) 16.7 (16.7–33.3) 33.3 (20.0–46.7) 44.4 (33.3–66.7) 100 (83.3–100) 55.6 (50.0–66.7)
  No 33.3 (20.0–46.7) 0 (0–16.7) 8.3 (0–25.0) 20.0 (6.7–26.7) 22.2 (11.1–33.3) 100 (75.0–100) 30.6 (22.2–38.9)
p-value 0.0108 0.0453 0.0048 0. 0115 0.0002 0.6255 0.0002
Perceived modest income
  Yes 40.0 (26.7–60.0) 11.1 (0–27.8)) 16.7 (0–33.3) 26.7 (13.3–46.7) 22.2 (11.1–33.3) 100 (83.3–100) 38.9 (27.8–44.4)
  No 26.7 (20.0–40.0) 0 (0–11.1) 8.3 (0–16.7) 13.3 (6.7–26.7) 22.2 (11.1–33.3) 100 (66.7–100) 27.8 (22.2–38.9)
p-value < 0.0001 0.0024 0.0002 0.0036 0.0467 0.0667 0.0001
Financial worries
  Yes 40.0 (26.7–53.3) 2.8 (0–22.2) 16.7 (8.3–16.7) 20.0 (13.3–40.0) 22.2 (11.1–44.4) 91.7 (75.0–100) 44.4 (33.3–55.6)
  No 33.3 (20.0–46.7) 0 (0–16.7) 8.3 (0–25.0) 20.0 (6.7–26.7) 22.2 (11.1–33.3) 100 (83.3–100) 27.8 (22.2–38.9)
p-value 0.1597 0.6878 0.1492 0.1479 0.2374 0.8699 0.0003
  1. High scores indicate a poorer quality of life
  2. For age and number of health problems, Spearman’s correlation coefficients are given. For sex, marital status, educational level, driving a car, hospital admission and life events during the previous 12 months, medians (interquartile range) are given. Statistical significance (p-value< 0.0073) is shown in bold type