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Table 2 Comparison of scores for dimensions on the LEIPAD scale according to the characteristics of the participants

From: Health-related quality of life among community-dwelling people aged 80 years and over: a cross-sectional study in France

 Physical FunctionSelf-CareDepression and AnxietyCognitive FunctioningSocial FunctioningSexual FunctioningLife Satisfaction
Total33.3 (20.0–46.7)0 (0–22.2)8.3 (0–25.0)20.0 (6.7–26.7)22.2 (11.1–33.3)100 (83.3–100)33.3 (22.2–38.9)
Gender
 Male26.7 (13.3–40.0)0 (0–5.6)0 (0–16.7)20.0 (6.7–26.7)22.2 (11.1–33.3)83.3 (66.7–100)33.3 (22.2–38.9)
 Female33.3 (26.7–53.3)11.1 (0–27.8)16.7 (0–25.0)20.0 (13.3–26.7)22.2 (11.1–33.3)100 (83.3–100)33.3 (27.8–44.4)
p-value< 0.0001< 0.00010.00180.31220.5249< 0.00010.3153
Age (years)
 r0.250.280.150.130.130.160.10
p-value0.00100.00020.05150.09020.07780.03940.1884
Marital status
 Never married, widowed, divorced33.3 (26.7–53.3)5.6 (0–27.8)16.7 (0–25.0)20.0 (6.7–26.7)22.2 (11.1–33.3)100 (100–100)33.3 (27.8–44.4)
 Married or with a partner33.3 (20.0–46.7)0 (0–16.7)8.3 (0–25.0)20.0 (6.7–33.3)22.2 (11.1–33.3)83.3 (66.7–100)27.8 (22.2–38.9)
p-value0.07550.13310.36150.45970.27580.00020.0934
Educational level
 Pre-high school33.3 (20.0–53.3)5.6 (0–22.2)8.3 (0–25.0)20.0 (6.7–33.3)22.2 (11.1–33.3)100 (83.3–100)33.3 (25.0–38.9)
 High school or higher education26.7 (20.0–40.0)0 (0–11.1)8.3 (0–16.7)13.3 (6.7–26.7)22.2 (0–33.3)83.3 (66.7–100)33.3 (22.2–44.4)
p-value0.07000.07750.46310.44620.14810.01110.9059
Living arrangement
 Alone33.3 (20.0–53.3)5.6 (0–22.2)16.7 (0–25.0)20.0 (6.7–26.7)22.2 (11.1–33.3)100 (83.3–100)33.3 (27.8–44.4)
 Not alone33.3 (20.0–46.7)0 (0–16.7)8.3 (0–25.0)20.0 (6.7–33.3)22.2 (11.1–33.3)100 (66.7–100)27.8 (22.2–38.9)
p-value0.22780.69060.47640.50170.16450.00960.0224
Driving a car
 Yes26.7 (20.0–40.0)0 (0–5.6)0 (0–16.7)20.0 (6.7–26.7)22.2 (11.1–33.3)100 (66.7–100)27.8 (22.2–38.9)
 No40.0 (26.7–60.0)22.2 (2.8–33.3)16.7 (0–33.3)20.0 (13.3–33.3)22.2 (11.1–44.4)100 (83.3–100)33.3 (27.8–50.0)
p-value< 0.0001< 0.00010.00330.05590.01740.00240.0814
Hospital admission during the previous 12 months
 Yes46.7 (20.0–60.0)5.6 (0–22.2)16.7 (0–33.3)20.0 (6.7–40.0)22.2 (11.1–33.3)100 (83.3–100)33.3 (22.2–38.9)
 No33.3 (20.0–40.0)0 (0–16.7)8.3 (0–25.0)20.0 (6.7–26.7)22.2 (11.1–33.3)100 (66.7–100)33.3 (22.2–41.7)
p-value0.03120.42750.19870.56220.62190.75350.6690
Number of health problems
 r0.500.410.250.210.240.080.30
p-value< 0.0001< 0.00010.00080.00500.00110.2933< 0.0001
Life events during the previous 12 months
Illness
  Yes46.7 (33.3–60.0)11.1 (0–27.8)16.7 (0–33.3)20.0 (6.7–40.0)22.2 (11.1–33.3)100 (66.7–100)33.3 (22.2–44.4)
  No26.7 (20.0–40.0)0 (0–16.7)8.3 (0–25.0)20.0 (13.3–26.7)22.2 (11.1–33.3)100 (83.3–100)33.3 (22.2–38.9)
p-value< 0.00010.00300.00130.18770.62220.90030.4011
Poor health
  Yes53.3 (40.0–66.7)22.2 (11.1–44.4)16.7 (8.3–37.5)20.0 (13.3–40.0)33.3 (22.2–55.6)100 (66.7–100)38.9 (27.8–55.6)
  No26.7 (20.0–33.3)0 (0–5.6)8.3 (0–16.7)20.0 (6.7–26.7)22.2 (11.1–33.3)100 (83.3–100)27.8 (22.2–38.9)
p-value< 0.0001< 0.0001< 0.00010.01340.00020.85150.0003
Daily care of a relative or friend
  Yes36.7 (26.7–53.3)11.1 (0–22.2)16.7 (4.2–41.7)26.7 (20.0–43.3)33.3 (11.1–50.0)100 (83.3–100)38.9 (27.8–50.0)
  No33.3 (20.0–46.7)0 (0–16.7)8.3 (0–16.7)13.3 (6.7–26.7)22.2 (11.1–33.3)100 (66.7–100)27.8 (22.2–38.9)
p-value0.15790.25980.00480.00060.15440.45440.0024
Problem(s) with spouse or partner
  Yes33.3 (20.0–40.0)0 (0–5.6)12.5 (0–16.7)20.0 (20.0–26.7)22.2 (11.1–33.3)100 (83.3–100)33.3 (27.8–44.4)
  No33.3 (20.0–46.7)0 (0–22.2)8.3 (0–25.0)20.0 (6.7–33.3)22.2 (11.1–33.3)100 (83.3–100)33.3 (22.2–38.9)
p-value0.90140.18370.70970.22910.49880.66430.2447
Bereavement
  Yes33.3 (26.7–53.3)5.6 (0–22.2)25.0 (8.3–33.3)20.0 (6.7–33.3)33.3 (11.1–44.4)100 (83.3–100)38.9 (27.8–50.0)
  No33.3 (20.0–46.7)0 (0–16.7)8.3 (0–16.7)20.0 (6.7–26.7)22.2 (11.1–33.3)100 (75.0–100)27.8 (22.2–38.9)
p-value0.02450.4799< 0.00010.28560.04110.90750.0278
Serious illness of a relative or friend
  Yes33.3 (26.7–53.3)0 (0–16.7)16.7 (0–33.3)20.0 (10.0–33.3)22.2 (11.1–44.4)100 (83.3–100)38.9 (27.8–50.0)
  No33.3 (20.0–46.7)0 (0–16.7)8.3 (0–16.7)20.0 (6.7–26.7)22.2 (11.1–33.3)100 (66.7–100)27.8 (22.2–38.9)
p-value0.13790.74220.00290.15290.24810.3812< 0.0001
Problems(s) with offspring
  Yes40.0 (26.7–60.0)11.1 (0–33.3)16.7 (8.3–25.0)20.0 (6.7–33.3)33.3 (11.1–44.4)83.3 (66.7–100)44.4 (27.8–55.6)
  No33.3 (20.0–46.7)0 (0–16.7)8.3 (0–25.0)20.0 (6.7–26.7)22.2 (11.1–33.3)100 (83.3–100)27.8 (22.2–38.9)
p-value0.03520.01570.04560.50220.00440.26980.0054
Relational problem(s) with friends or relatives
  Yes46.7 (33.3–60.0)25.0 (11.1–38.9)20.8 (8.3–50.0)26.7 (20.0–66.7)50.0 (44.4–55.6)100 (83.3–100)52.8 (27.8–58.3)
  No33.3 (20.0–46.7)0 (0–16.7)8.3 (0–25.0)20.0 (6.7–26.7)22.2 (11.1–33.3)100 (83.3–100)33.3 (22.2–38.9)
p-value0.01370.00120.03050.08940.00040.65440.0528
Unsatisfactory environment
  Yes40.0 (40.0–50.0)11.1 (5.6–25.0)16.7 (16.7–33.3)33.3 (20.0–46.7)44.4 (33.3–66.7)100 (83.3–100)55.6 (50.0–66.7)
  No33.3 (20.0–46.7)0 (0–16.7)8.3 (0–25.0)20.0 (6.7–26.7)22.2 (11.1–33.3)100 (75.0–100)30.6 (22.2–38.9)
p-value0.01080.04530.00480. 01150.00020.62550.0002
Perceived modest income
  Yes40.0 (26.7–60.0)11.1 (0–27.8))16.7 (0–33.3)26.7 (13.3–46.7)22.2 (11.1–33.3)100 (83.3–100)38.9 (27.8–44.4)
  No26.7 (20.0–40.0)0 (0–11.1)8.3 (0–16.7)13.3 (6.7–26.7)22.2 (11.1–33.3)100 (66.7–100)27.8 (22.2–38.9)
p-value< 0.00010.00240.00020.00360.04670.06670.0001
Financial worries
  Yes40.0 (26.7–53.3)2.8 (0–22.2)16.7 (8.3–16.7)20.0 (13.3–40.0)22.2 (11.1–44.4)91.7 (75.0–100)44.4 (33.3–55.6)
  No33.3 (20.0–46.7)0 (0–16.7)8.3 (0–25.0)20.0 (6.7–26.7)22.2 (11.1–33.3)100 (83.3–100)27.8 (22.2–38.9)
p-value0.15970.68780.14920.14790.23740.86990.0003
  1. High scores indicate a poorer quality of life
  2. For age and number of health problems, Spearman’s correlation coefficients are given. For sex, marital status, educational level, driving a car, hospital admission and life events during the previous 12 months, medians (interquartile range) are given. Statistical significance (p-value< 0.0073) is shown in bold type