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Table 2 PedsQL-YA scores and effect sizes (Cohen’s d) for young adults with T1DM compared to two norm groups (healthy and chronic disease) for age group 18–25

From: The impact of type 1 diabetes on young adults’ health-related quality of life

 DiabetesHealthy Chronic Disease 
 N = 165N = 310 N = 75 
 M (SD)M (SD)dM (SD)d
Total79.0 (15.3)85.9 (11.2)0.675.2 (15.1)− 0.2
Physical84.5 (15.9)90.2 (12.5)0.577.8 (20.5)−0.3
Emotional70.9 (21.9)78.4 (17.7)0.469.7 (18.1)−0.1
Social86.2 (15.1)88.4 (13.7)0.279.2 (17.4)−0.4
School71.0 (19.0)84.0 (14.3)0.972.7 (16.9)0.1
  1. Note. Higher scores indicate better HRQOL; Norm data (healthy and chronic disease) taken from Limperg et al. [24]