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Table 2 Characteristics of participants

From: Is the Patient Activation Measure a valid measure of osteoarthritis self-management attitudes and capabilities? Results of a Rasch analysis

CharacteristicsIncluded n = 217Excluded n = 21
Sex female, n (%)148 (68)10 (48)
Age years (SD)65.5 (10.8)68.7 (10.3)
Signal joint knee n (%)183 (84)15 (71)
Body mass index kg/m2(SD)30.3 (6.1)30.0 (5.1)
PAM raw score
PAM score mean (SD)a60.5 (11.0) 
 PAM level 1 n (%)10 (4.6) 
 PAM level 2 n (%)47 (21.7) 
 PAM level 3 n (%)123 (56.7) 
 PAM level 4 n (%)28 (12.9) 
Highest level of education
 Year 10 or equivalent n (%)57 (26)4 (19)
 Year 12 or equivalent n (%)28 (13)1 (5)
 Graduate degree n (%)104 (48)11 (52)
 Post graduate degree n (%)22 (10)1 (5)
 Missing n (%)6 (3)4 (19)
Work status
 Home duties n (%)6 (3)0
 Full time n (%)56 (26)3 (14)
 Part-Time n (%)21 (10)3 (14)
 Retired n (%)100 (46)8 (38)
 Volunteer n (%)4 (2)1 (5)
 Other n (%)25 (12)2 (10)
 Missing n (%)5 (1)4 (19)
Private hospital n (%)160 (74)21 (100)
Public hospital n (%)57 (26)0
Average pain in last week on VASbn = 214n = 17
VAS mean (SD)4.0 (2.3)3.4 (2.5)
KOOScn = 179n = 12
Pain mean (SD)52.3 (17.7)53.6 (14.1)
Function in daily living mean (SD)58.0 (19.8)59.3 (19.1)
HOOSdn = 32n = 3
Pain mean (SD)57.7 (19.2)61.7 (16.7)
Function in daily living mean (SD)59.5 (18.1)48.3 (20.2)
DASS-21en = 214n = 16
Depression mean (SD)7.2 (8.6)5.2 (6.8)
Anxiety mean (SD)5.1 (7.3)3.8 (4.3)
Stress mean (SD)8.8 (8.5)7.5 (5.2)
AQoLfn = 198n = 6
Independent living mean (SD)68.4 (19.3)68.5 (15.5)
Social relationships mean (SD)75.4 (19.8)86.7 (10.3)
Mental health mean (SD)69.8 (21.9)74.0 (11.6)
Coping mean (SD)65.3 (20.3)69.3 (8.8)
Pain mean (SD)45.8 (22.3)55.0 (18.7)
Physical senses mean (SD)81.8 (10.9)79.7 (6.5)
AQoL summed index mean (SD)68.4 (14.9)72.1 (8.6)
  1. aPAM: Patient Activation Measure- 0 = worst, 100 = best, however, participants with scores of 0 or 100 were excluded from having a final score. PAM level 1 = least activated, 4 = most activated
  2. b VAS: Visual analogue scale- average pain over the last week 0 = no pain, 10 = worst pain imaginable
  3. c KOOS: Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score- 0 = worst, 100 = best
  4. d HOOS: Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score- 0 = worst, 100 = best
  5. e DASS: Depression Anxiety Stress Scales- 0 = best, 42 = worst
  6. f Assessment of Quality of Life Instrument- Standardised scores- 0 = worst, 100 = best