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Table 5 Observed and adjusted scores accounting for DIF

From: Measuring stress in Australia: validation of the perceived stress scale (PSS-14) in a national sample

 ObservedAdjustedBias
MeanSEMeanSE 
Perceived Stress
 Education
  Up to High School8.210.117.940.120.26
  Technical education or University8.040.077.890.070.15
 Sex     
  Female8.500.088.160.080.34
  Male7.430.107.490.10−0.06
Perceived Control
 Education
  Up to High School7.810.067.920.07−0.11
  Technical education or University8.170.048.420.04−0.25
 Sex
  Female8.010.048.270.06−0.26
  Male8.130.068.230.06−0.11
  1. It is displayed the average score for each subgroup before and after adjustment for differential item functioning. The bias indicate the differences between observed and adjusted scores