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Table 5 Observed and adjusted scores accounting for DIF

From: Measuring stress in Australia: validation of the perceived stress scale (PSS-14) in a national sample

  Observed Adjusted Bias
Mean SE Mean SE  
Perceived Stress
 Education
  Up to High School 8.21 0.11 7.94 0.12 0.26
  Technical education or University 8.04 0.07 7.89 0.07 0.15
 Sex      
  Female 8.50 0.08 8.16 0.08 0.34
  Male 7.43 0.10 7.49 0.10 −0.06
Perceived Control
 Education
  Up to High School 7.81 0.06 7.92 0.07 −0.11
  Technical education or University 8.17 0.04 8.42 0.04 −0.25
 Sex
  Female 8.01 0.04 8.27 0.06 −0.26
  Male 8.13 0.06 8.23 0.06 −0.11
  1. It is displayed the average score for each subgroup before and after adjustment for differential item functioning. The bias indicate the differences between observed and adjusted scores