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Table 5 Observed and adjusted scores accounting for DIF

From: Measuring stress in Australia: validation of the perceived stress scale (PSS-14) in a national sample

Perceived Stress
  Up to High School8.210.117.940.120.26
  Technical education or University8.040.077.890.070.15
Perceived Control
  Up to High School7.810.067.920.07−0.11
  Technical education or University8.170.048.420.04−0.25
  1. It is displayed the average score for each subgroup before and after adjustment for differential item functioning. The bias indicate the differences between observed and adjusted scores