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Table 2 Conditional likelihood ratio test of overall model fit and Global DIF

From: Measuring stress in Australia: validation of the perceived stress scale (PSS-14) in a national sample

 ModelHomogeneityDifferential Item Functioning by sexDifferential Item Functioning by education
PSS-14RMχ2(55) = 3828.3, p < 0.001χ2(55) = 575.1, p < 0.001χ2(55) = 320.9, p < 0.001
Perceived StressRMχ2(27) = 1409.7, p < 0.001χ2(27) = 177.8, p < 0.001χ2(27) = 82.2, p < 0.001
GLLRMχ2(96) = 94.4, p = 0.440χ2(80) = 111.8, p = 0.012χ2(88) = 104.1, p = 0.080
Perceived ControlRMχ2(27) = 713.4, p < 0.001χ2(27) = 197.2, p < 0.001χ2(27) = 104.1, p < 0.001
GLLRMχ2(55) = 62.5, p = 0.224χ2(39) = 39.0, p = 0.469χ2(47) = 70.9, p = 0.014
  1. The subgroups were defined according to lower and higher scores (i.e. homogeneity) to evaluate overall model fit; and according to sex (men; women) and education (Up to high school; Technical education or University) to evaluate Global Differential Item Functioning