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Table 4 The Direct, Indirect and Total effect of socio-demographical, clinical and Behavioral factor on HRQoL domains among of adults with DM attending at AHMC, 2019

From: Heath related quality of life and associated factors among adults with and without diabetes in Adama city East Shewa, Ethiopia 2019; using generalized structural equation modeling

Variables (effect measure is β)
Diabetic (n = 359)
Direct effect (95% CI)Indirect effect (95% CI)Total effect (95% CI)
DV: Physical health
 Fasting blood sugar− 0.08[− 0.11 to − 0.47]
 Depression 1.43[− 1.96 to − 0.89]
 DM complication
  No000
  Yes−7.42[− 10.15 to − 4.69]
 Medication Adherence
  High000
  Medium− 0.83[− 3.50 to 1.84] 
  Low− 2.95[− 5.65 to − 0.26]−0.98[− 10.13 to − 0.33]− 3.93[− 15.78 to − 0.59]
 Diabetic self-care activity
  Poor000
  Good4.95[2.66–7.25]0.93 [1.81 to 2.15]5.88[4.47 to 9.40]
DV: Psychological health
 Residence
  Urban000
  Rural−3.28[− 5.58 to −0.98]
  Fasting blood sugar−0.06[− 0.09 to − 0.04]
  Depression− 1.09[−1.47 to − 0.70]
 DM complication
  No000
  Yes−2.63[− 4.62 to −0.63]
DV: Social relation
 Residence
  Urban000
  Rural−10.51[−15.80 to −5.22]
  Depression−1.88[−2.66 to − 1.11]
 Diabetic self-care activity
  Poor000
  Good5.12[1.29–8.96]
DV: Environmental health
 Age−0.10[−0.17 to −0.03]
 Residence
  Urban000
  Rural−3.13[−5.28 to −0.98]
 Marital status
  Single000
  Married4.47[1.76–7.17]
  Separated3.76[−0.55 to 8.07]
  Divorced8.29[3.44–13.10]
  Widowed3.24[−0.37 to 6.86]  
DV: Environmental health
 Depression−1.10[−1.47 to −0.74]
 Fasting blood sugar−0.04[− 0.06 to − 0.01]
 Medication Adherence
  High000
  Medium−1.80[−3.60 to −0.01]
  Low−2.69 [−4.52 to − 0.86]−0.49[− 0.22 to − 0.17]−3.18[− 4.74 to − 1.03]
 Diabetic self-care activity
  Poor000
  Good3.18[1.62–4.73]0.47[0.04 to 1.17]3.65[1.56 to 5.90]
DV: Fasting blood sugar
 Medication Adherence
  High000
  Medium1.40[−8.29 to 11.10]
  Low12.22[2.90 to 21.56]
 Diabetic self-care activity
  Poor000
  Good−11.68[−19.54 to −3.83]
  1. DV dependent variable, CI confidence interval