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Table 1 Characteristics of the study sample by presence of diabetes-related complications, adults with diabetes, weighted row percentages. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, panels 2009–2015

From: Health related quality of life and healthcare utilization among adults with diabetes and kidney and eye complications in the United States

 TotalNeither CKD nor ECsEye ComplicationsCKDCKD & Eye ComplicationsP-Value
Wt. (%)Wt. (%)Wt. (%)Wt. (%)Wt. (%)
ALL 75.513.35.75.5 
Sex     0.297
Age     0.030
 65, +42.773.414.06.46.3 
Race     < 0.001
 African American15.470.817.35.16.9 
Marital status     0.053
 Never Married10.875. 
Poverty status     < 0.001
 Near Poor22. 
 Middle Income31.075.713.35.95.1 
 High Income32.481. 
Health insurance     < 0.001
Prescription Drug coverage     < 0.001
Chronic Physical Conditions Number     < 0.001
 No Physical condition11.884.710.22.92.2 
 = > 58.762. 
Chronic Mental Conditions Number
 No mental condition86.276.413.15.55.0< 0.001
 > = 113.870. 
Body mass index
 Underweight /Normal14.173.916.
Smoking status     < 0.001
 Current smoker14.673.615.65.55.4 
  1. Abbreviations: CKD Chronic Kidney Disease, Wt. Weighted
  2. Note: Based on 8415 adults aged 21 years or older, alive during the calendar years, and reported having diabetes. The p- values were derived from the chi-square tests between groups of adults with complications and explanatory variables. Physical chronic conditions included asthma, arthritis, cancer, gastroesophageal reflux disease, heart diseases, hypertension, osteoporosis, thyroid, and Chronic obstructive Pulmonary disease. Mental chronic conditions included anxiety and/or depression