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Table 1 Main study variables according to gender and monthly household income: Mean (Standard Deviation)

From: A biopsychosocial-cultural model for understanding oral-health-related quality of life among adolescent orthodontic patients

VariablesM (SD)GenderMonthly household income
GirlsBoysF< 3000 RMB3000–5000 RMB5000–10,000 RMB> 10,000 RMBF
PIDAQ1.39 (0.68)1.51 (0.70)1.18 (0.57)24.55**0.94 (0.67)1.14 (0.54)1.38 (0.52)1.81 (0.68)38.95**
IOTN-AC5.61 (1.86)5.69 (1.93)5.46 (1.73)1.475.29 (1.20)5.84 (1.74)5.62 (2.04)5.49 (2.01)1.37
PSPS-parents1.99 (1.00)2.08 (1.05)1.81 (0.86)7.07**0.98 (1.27)5.85 (1.95)5.20 (1.53)6.01 (2.02)14.24**
PSPS-peers1.93 (0.85)2.00 (0.85)1.82 (9.83)4.18*1.73 (0.98)1.71 (0.74)1.90 (0.82)2.41 (1.19)4.47**
PSPS-mass media1.37 (0.69)1.39 (0.68)1.33 (0.72)0.661.25 (0.56)1.31 (0.60)1.28 (0.62)1.54 (0.83)4.27**
PACS2.04 (1.01)2.15 (1.01)1.83 (1.00)10.25**1.91 (1.02)1.96 (1.01)2.07 (0.94)2.13 (1.05)1.00
  1. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01