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Table 1 Demographic information on family caregivers and non-caregivers in the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care sample

From: Analyzing the situation of older family caregivers with a focus on health-related quality of life and pain: a cross-sectional cohort study

  Total
n = 3,444
Family caregivers
n = 395
Non-caregivers
n = 3,049
p value
Demographic information
 Age (years)
  Median, q1-q3 72, 66-81 66, 60-78 72, 66-81 < 0.001
 Sex (female) 1,861/3,444 (54.0%) 212/395 (53.7%) 1,649/3,049 (54.1%) < 0.887
 Financial status (low) 535/3,324
(16.1%)
62/390
(15.9%)
473/2,934
(16.1%)
< 0.910
 Education (low)
  Dropped out of school at 14–16 years old 2,414/2,770 (87.1%) 271/304 (89.1%) 2,143/2,466 (86.9%) < 0.270
 Married 1,895/3,390
(55.9%)
274/391
(70.1%)
1,621/2,999
(54.0%)
< 0.001
 Living alone 1,399/3,394
(41.2%)
103/393
(26.2%)
1,296/3,001
(43.2%)
< 0.001
Health variables
 MMSE
  Median, q1-q3 28, 26-29 28, 26-29 28, 26-29 < 0.001
 IADL (independence) 2,187/3,357 (65.1%) 266/389 (68.4%) 1,921/2,968 (64.7%) < 0.001
 Pain (yes) 1,853/3,303 (56.1%) 219/386 (56.7%) 1,634/2,917 (56.0%) 0.827
 Pain intensity (VAS 1–10)
  Median, q1-q3 4, 3-5 4, 2-5 4, 3-5 0.021
 VAS levels:     0.023
  VAS 1.00–3.99 671/1,723 (38.9%) 101/215 (47.0%) 570/1,508 (37.8%)  
  VAS 4.00–6.99 785/1,723 (45.6%) 83/215 (38.6%) 702/1,508 (46.6%)  
  VAS 7.00–10.00 267/1,723 (15.5%) 31/215 (14.4%) 236/1,508 (15.6%)  
 Pain location
  Neck 433/2,721 (15.9%) 55/339 (16.2%) 378/2,382 (15.9%) 0.874
  Legs and feet 890/2,773 (32.1%) 98/342 (28.7%) 792/2,431 (32.6%) 0.155
  Back 945/2,773 (34.1%) 107/344 (31.1%) 838/2,429 (34.5%) 0.224
  Shoulder 691/2,773 (24.9%) 80/345 (23.2%) 611/2,428 (25.2%) 0.464
  Joints 585/2,755 (21.2%) 59/345 (17.1%) 526/2,410 (21.8%) 0.049
  Chest 144/2,703 (5.3%) 16/336 (4.8%) 128/2,365 (5.4%) 0.698
Attitudes and quality of life
 How soon I recover after illness depends on how I take care of myself (Entirely) 1,056/3,206 (32.9%) 120/383 (31.3%) 936/2,823 (33.2%) 0.108
 I expect to have a very healthy life (Entirely) 475/3,191 (14.9%) 51/380 (13.4%) 424/2,811 (15.1%) 0.456
 I am worried about my health:     0.327
  Very worried 220/3,303 (6.7%) 24/381 (6.3%) 191/2,819 (6.8%)  
  Fairly worried 807/3,303 (24.4%) 83/381 (21.8%) 703/2,819 (25.0%)  
  A little worried 1,630/3,303 (49.3%) 205/381 (53.8%) 1,377/2,819 (48.8%)  
  Not worried 646/3,303 (19.6%) 69/381 (18.1%) 548/2,819 (19.4%)  
Mental HRQoL
 MCS median, q1-q3 57.4, 51.9-59.9 57.1, 50.0-59.8 57.6, 52.0-60.0 0.064
  1. Chi-squared tests were used for data at the nominal and ordinal levels, and the Mann Whitney U test was used for data at the interval levels. Significant factors are in bold