Skip to main content

Table 1 Description of the YES cohort characteristics by obesity grade (means (SD) or frequencies (%))

From: Health related quality of life associated with extreme obesity in adolescents – results from the baseline evaluation of the YES-study

 Total sampleObesity grade I (BMI 30–35 kg/m2)Obesity grade II (BMI 35–40 kg/m2)Obesity grade III (BMI > 40 kg/m2)
N (%)352 (100.0)122 (34.7)100 (28.4)130 (36.9)
Age (years)16.7 (2.4)15.8 (1.9)16.2 (1.9)17.9 (2.7)
Gender (female (%))180 (51.1)66 (54.1)50 (50.0)64 (49.2)
BMI (kg/m2)39.1 (7.5)32.6 (1.4)37.4 (1.4)46.5 (7.1)
BMI-SDS3.0 (0.5)2.5 (0.2)3.0 (0.2)3.5 (0.4)
Study centers
 Berlin153 (43.5)68 (55.7)46 (46.0)39 (30.0)
 Datteln46 (13.1)14 (11.5)19 (19.0)13 (10.0)
 Essen36 (10.2)2 (1.6)2 (2.0)32 (24.6)
 Leipzig34 (9.7)9 (7.4)13 (13.0)12 (9.2)
 Ulm83 (23.6)29 (23.8)20 (20.0)34 (26.2)
Cigarette smoking (%)54 (16.5)11 (9.7)19 (20.4)24 (19.7)
Alcohol use (%)108 (33.4)30 (27.5)27 (29.4)51 (41.8)
Obesity Pretreatment status (%)
 No pretreatment118 (37.0)47 (42.7)32 (36.4)39 (32.2)
 Inpatient112 (35.1)30 (27.3)24 (27.3)58 (47.9)
 Outpatient89 (27.9)33 (30.0)32 (36.4)24 (19.8)
Comorbidities (yes (%))a209 (66.8)64 (56.6)59 (62.8)86 (81.1)
No regular physical activity (%)b131 (40.4)32 (29.4)37 (39.4)62 (51.2)
Screen time > 4 h/d (%)199 (61.0)66 (58.9)48 (52.2)85 (69.7)
Migration background (%)c159 (47.3)57 (49.1)47 (49.5)55 (44.0)
Parental education (%)d
 low98 (31.8)28 (25.5)32 (36.0)38 (34.9)
 middle124 (40.3)43 (39.1)37 (41.6)44 (40.4)
 high86 (27.9)39 (35.5)20 (22.5)27 (24.8)
Participant education (%)e
 low84 (25.0)17 (14.7)22 (23.2)45 (36.0)
 middle176 (52.4)64 (55.2)53 (55.8)59 (47.2)
 high76 (22.6)35 (30.2)20 (21.1)21 (16.8)
No parent full-time employed (%)112 (35.3)40 (37.4)28 (31.1)44 (36.7)
EQ-5D-3 L any problems (%)
 Mobility (n = 349)63 (18.1)17 (13.9)15 (15.2)31 (24.2)
 Self-care (n = 348)6 (1.7)2 (1.6)1 (1.0)3 (2.4)
 Usual activities (n = 349)63 (18.1)19 (15.6)14 (14.1)30 (23.4)
 Pain/Discomfort (n = 349)159 (45.6)49 (40.2)42 (42.4)68 (53.1)
 Anxiety/Depression (n = 348)109 (31.3)37 (30.3)28 (28.3)44 (34.7)
  > 1 problem113 (32.1)34 (27.9)27 (27.0)52 (40.0)
 No problem136 (38.6)51 (41.8)43 (43.0)42 (32.3)
EQ-VAS (n = 339)71.8 (22.6)75.3 (20.7)71.3 (24.1)68.9 (23.0)
DCGM-31 (n = 272)65.1 (17.1)70.7 (17.8)65.8 (14.9)59.3 (16.3)
DCGM-31 dimensions
 Independence67.7 (19.0)71.5 (19.4)68.4 (18.5)63.6 (18.4)
 Physical restrictions69.1 (20.3)75.0 (20.3)71.6 (17.6)61.5 (20.0)
 Emotion51.5 (25.4)56.7 (27.1)50.3 (23.6)47.5 (24.5)
 Social exclusion72.2 (20.9)76.9 (20.7)72.7 (20.1)67.2 (20.7)
 Social inclusion65.4 (17.9)69.3 (18.8)67.4 (15.3)60.2 (17.9)
KINDL obesity module (n = 316)60.4 (18.2)63.6 (18.8)61.2 (17.7)56.7 (17.4)
  1. a hypertension, dyslipidemia or dysglycemia
  2. b based on answers to the question “Do you exercise regularly?”;
  3. c at least one parent born abroad and/or foreign citizen status
  4. d low education: ≤9 years; medium education: 10–11 years; high education: ≥12 years
  5. e lowest educational track: dropped out of school or vocational school; middle educational track: middle school; highest educational track: grammar school with the aim of higher secondary education