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Table 3 Summary of questionnaire items

From: Assessment of the psychometric properties and refinement of the Health and Self-Management in Diabetes Questionnaire (HASMID)

  T1DM (n = 795) T2DM (n = 1989) Difference in means between groups Effect size using Cohen’s d Wilcoxon rank-sum test (p value) Statistically significant difference between groups (p < 0.05)
Mean Item Score (SD) Floor (%) Ceiling (%) Mean Item Score (SD) Floor (%) Ceiling (%)
Temper 2.22 0.75 8.05 11.19 1.99 0.74 5.58 21.92 0.22 0.30 < 0.001 < 0.001
Irritable 2.23 0.59 4.65 3.90 2.08 0.57 3.47 9.30 0.15 0.25 < 0.001 < 0.001
Hypo 2.26 0.92 13.22 19.27 1.47 0.71 2.72 62.61 0.79 1.03 < 0.001 < 0.001
Tired 2.87 0.84 27.80 1.38 2.68 0.84 21.64 2.67 0.19 0.22 < 0.001 < 0.001
Tied meal times 2.01 0.96 8.05 37.86 1.86 0.92 4.84 45.39 0.15 0.16 < 0.001 < 0.001
Affects meal times 2.11 0.87 8.93 23.40 1.69 0.82 4.13 49.65 0.42 0.50 < 0.001 < 0.001
Control 1.98 0.86 6.67 31.45 1.79 0.81 4.38 40.76 0.19 0.23 < 0.001 < 0.001
Daily routine 2.34 0.90 14.47 14.72 1.67 0.79 4.08 48.41 0.66 0.81 < 0.001 < 0.001
Social activities 1.83 0.80 4.28 36.98 1.52 0.74 3.17 59.49 0.31 0.41 < 0.001 < 0.001
Hassle 2.59 0.86 18.24 7.04 1.84 0.79 4.03 36.44 0.75 0.92 < 0.001 < 0.001
Problem 2.23 0.73 8.30 9.18 1.77 0.70 3.17 35.90 0.47 0.66 < 0.001 < 0.001
Stressful 2.48 0.87 14.72 10.31 1.84 0.78 4.03 35.58 0.64 0.79 < 0.001 < 0.001
Support 2.40 0.81 6.67 14.09 2.16 0.89 6.25 26.68 0.24 0.28 < 0.001 < 0.001
  1. Response items were coded never = 1; sometimes = 2; usually = 3; and always = 4. A greater item score indicates a greater deterioration in QoL