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Table 3 The independent relationship between psychological distress and health-related quality of life shown by multiple linear regression analysis

From: The associations between psychological distress and health-related quality of life in patients with non-cardiac chest pain

Health-related quality of life, EQ-5D VAS
 All patients (N = 552)aNo history of cardiac disease (n = 360)bHistory of cardiac disease (n = 188)c
Explanatory variablesBetap-valueBetap-valueBetap-value
Model 1
 Age0.1490.0010.1680.0040.1140.098
 Sex−0.0070.8540.0250.611−0.0510.440
 Education level0.0230.5700.0690.168− 0.0390.545
 Marital status−0.0580.140−0.0300.541−0.0910.165
 Work status0.1130.0150.1240.0350.1300.066
 Number of healthcare visits−0.178< 0.001−0.1170.019−0.272< 0.001
 Multi-morbidity−0.347< 0.001−0.363< 0.001− 0.314< 0.001
Model 2
 Age0.0300.4510.0850.106−0.0130.814
 Sex0.0360.2860.0640.149−0.0080.887
 Education level−0.0130.7150.0290.506−0.0660.217
 Marital status−0.0330.3220.0160.710−0.1100.042
 Work status−0.0680.0880.1020.0490.0710.223
 Number of healthcare visits−0.0080.8430.0130.777−0.0020.976
 Multi-morbidity−0.0560.173−0.1440.0040.0720.295
 Cardiac anxiety−0.187< 0.001−0.229< 0.001− 0.1560.050
 Depressive symptoms−0.245< 0.001−0.1930.001−0.339< 0.001
 Fear of body sensations0.0000.9940.0560.278−0.0770.363
 Somatization−0.284< 0.001−0.258< 0.001− 0.320< 0.001
  1. Model 1: aR2 = 0.221, F = 21.5, p-value< 0.001; bR2 = 0.186, F = 11.3, p-value< 0.001; cR2 = 0.302, F = 10.9, p-value< 0.001
  2. Model 2: aR2 = 0.434, F = 36.8, p-value< 0.001; bR2 = 0.387, F = 19.6, p-value< 0.001; cR2 = 0.557, F = 19.6, p-value< 0.001