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Table 1 Previous validations of HADS in patients with cardiac disease

From: Psychometric properties of the Danish Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in patients with cardiac disease: results from the DenHeart survey

Cronbach’s alpha
Reference Language Population Analytic methods Number of factors Sub scale content HADS-A HADS-D Correlation between sub scales
Ayis et al. 2018 [9] English Stroke (n = 1443) ML
PCA
CFA (and IRT)
2 Anxiety:
1,3,5,7,9,11,13
Depression: 2,4,6,8,10,12,14
   
Kaur et al. 2015 [15] Malaysian Coronary artery disease (n = 189) PCA
CFA
3 Anxiety:
1,3,5,7,9,11,13
Anhedonia:
2,4,6,14
Psychomotor retardation: 8,10,12
0.89 0.69
Anhedonia: 0.70 Psychomotor retardation: 0.51
Anhedonia – psychomotor retardation: 0.35
Anhedonia – anxiety:
0.47
Psychomotor retardation – anxiety:
0.39
De Smedt et al. 2013 [10] 22 European countries CABG, PCI, AMI, myocardial ischemia (n = 8745) CFA 2 Anxiety: 1,3,5,7,9,11,13 Depression: 2,4,6,8,10,12,14 0.82 0.74 0.60
Cosco et al. 2012 [21] English Cardiovascular disease (n = 893) MSA 1 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,9,10,11,12,13    
Emons et al. 2012 [16] Dutch Cardiac patients (n = 534) MSA EFA CFA 3 Anxiety: 1,3,5,9,13 Depression: 2,4,6,8,10,12 Restlessness: 7,11,14    Depression – restlessness: 0.62
Restlessness – anxiety:
0.68
Depression – anxiety:
0.66
Kendel et al. 2010 [22] German CABG (n = 1271) Rasch (HADS-D only)   Depression: 2,4,6,12    
Hunt-Shanks et al. 2010 [17] English Cardiac patients (n = 801) CFA 3 Negative affect: 1,5,7,11 Autonomic anxiety: 3,9,13
Depression: 2,4,6,8,10,12,14
   
Martin et al. 2008 [18] German Chinese English Coronary heart disease
(n = 1793)
MGCFA 3 Antonomic anxiety:
3,9,13 Negative affectivity: 1,5,7,11Anhedonic depression: 2,4,6,8,10,12,14
   
Pais-Ribeiro et al. 2007 [11] Portuguese Mixed patients incl. Coronary heart disease (n = 1322) EFA
CFA
2 Anxiety:
1,3,5,7,9,11,13
Depression: 2,4,6,8,10,12,14
0.76 0.81 0.58
Wang et al. 2006 [12] Chinese Coronary heart disease (n = 154) CFA 2 or 3 2: Anxiety: 1,3,5,9,11 Depression: 2,4,6,7,8,10,12,14 3: Antonomic anxiety:
3,9,13
Negative affectivity: 1,5,7,11
Anhedonic depression: 2,4,6,8,10,12,14
   
Barth and Martin 2005 [13] German Coronary heart disease (n = 1320) EFA
CFA
EFA: 2
CFA: 3
EFA:
Anxiety:
1,3,5,7,9,11,13
Depression: 2,4,6,8,10,12,14
CFA:
Psychomotor agitation: 1,7,11
Psychic anxiety:
3,5,9,13
Depression: 2,4,6,8,10,12,14
   0.82
(between HADS-A and HADS-D)
Martin et al. 2004 [52] Chinese Acute coronary syndrome (n = 138) CFA 3 Different models apply 0.79 0.55  
Martin et al. 2003 [19] English MI
(n = 335)
CFA 3 Anhedonia: 2,4,6,8,10,12,14
Psychic anxiety:
3,5,9,13
Psychomotor agitation: 1,7,11
0.83–0.86 (3 timepoints) 0.76–0.80 (3 timepoints)  
Roberts et al. 2001 [14] English Female cardiac patients (n = 167) CFA 2 Anxiety:
1,3,5,7,9,11,13
Depression: 2,4,6,8,10,12,14
0.85 0.80 0.60
Martin and Thompson 2000 [20] English MI
(n = 194)
EFA 3 1: 2,4,6,7,8,10,12,14
2: 3,9,13
3: 1,5,11
0.76 0.72 0.54
  1. ML maximum likelihood; PCF principal component analysis; CFA confirmatory factor analysis; IRT item response theory; MSA Mokken scale analysis; EFA exploratory factor analysis; CABG coronary artery bypass graft; PCI percutaneous coronary intervention; AMI acute myocardial infarction; MGCFA meta group confirmatory factor analysis; MI myocardial infarction