Skip to main content

Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Table 1 Previous validations of HADS in patients with cardiac disease

From: Psychometric properties of the Danish Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in patients with cardiac disease: results from the DenHeart survey

Cronbach’s alpha
ReferenceLanguagePopulationAnalytic methodsNumber of factorsSub scale contentHADS-AHADS-DCorrelation between sub scales
Ayis et al. 2018 [9]EnglishStroke (n = 1443)ML
PCA
CFA (and IRT)
2Anxiety:
1,3,5,7,9,11,13
Depression: 2,4,6,8,10,12,14
   
Kaur et al. 2015 [15]MalaysianCoronary artery disease (n = 189)PCA
CFA
3Anxiety:
1,3,5,7,9,11,13
Anhedonia:
2,4,6,14
Psychomotor retardation: 8,10,12
0.890.69
Anhedonia: 0.70 Psychomotor retardation: 0.51
Anhedonia – psychomotor retardation: 0.35
Anhedonia – anxiety:
0.47
Psychomotor retardation – anxiety:
0.39
De Smedt et al. 2013 [10]22 European countriesCABG, PCI, AMI, myocardial ischemia (n = 8745)CFA2Anxiety: 1,3,5,7,9,11,13 Depression: 2,4,6,8,10,12,140.820.740.60
Cosco et al. 2012 [21]EnglishCardiovascular disease (n = 893)MSA11,2,3,4,5,6,7,9,10,11,12,13   
Emons et al. 2012 [16]DutchCardiac patients (n = 534)MSA EFA CFA3Anxiety: 1,3,5,9,13 Depression: 2,4,6,8,10,12 Restlessness: 7,11,14  Depression – restlessness: 0.62
Restlessness – anxiety:
0.68
Depression – anxiety:
0.66
Kendel et al. 2010 [22]GermanCABG (n = 1271)Rasch (HADS-D only) Depression: 2,4,6,12   
Hunt-Shanks et al. 2010 [17]EnglishCardiac patients (n = 801)CFA3Negative affect: 1,5,7,11 Autonomic anxiety: 3,9,13
Depression: 2,4,6,8,10,12,14
   
Martin et al. 2008 [18]German Chinese EnglishCoronary heart disease
(n = 1793)
MGCFA3Antonomic anxiety:
3,9,13 Negative affectivity: 1,5,7,11Anhedonic depression: 2,4,6,8,10,12,14
   
Pais-Ribeiro et al. 2007 [11]PortugueseMixed patients incl. Coronary heart disease (n = 1322)EFA
CFA
2Anxiety:
1,3,5,7,9,11,13
Depression: 2,4,6,8,10,12,14
0.760.810.58
Wang et al. 2006 [12]ChineseCoronary heart disease (n = 154)CFA2 or 32: Anxiety: 1,3,5,9,11 Depression: 2,4,6,7,8,10,12,14 3: Antonomic anxiety:
3,9,13
Negative affectivity: 1,5,7,11
Anhedonic depression: 2,4,6,8,10,12,14
   
Barth and Martin 2005 [13]GermanCoronary heart disease (n = 1320)EFA
CFA
EFA: 2
CFA: 3
EFA:
Anxiety:
1,3,5,7,9,11,13
Depression: 2,4,6,8,10,12,14
CFA:
Psychomotor agitation: 1,7,11
Psychic anxiety:
3,5,9,13
Depression: 2,4,6,8,10,12,14
  0.82
(between HADS-A and HADS-D)
Martin et al. 2004 [52]ChineseAcute coronary syndrome (n = 138)CFA3Different models apply0.790.55 
Martin et al. 2003 [19]EnglishMI
(n = 335)
CFA3Anhedonia: 2,4,6,8,10,12,14
Psychic anxiety:
3,5,9,13
Psychomotor agitation: 1,7,11
0.83–0.86 (3 timepoints)0.76–0.80 (3 timepoints) 
Roberts et al. 2001 [14]EnglishFemale cardiac patients (n = 167)CFA2Anxiety:
1,3,5,7,9,11,13
Depression: 2,4,6,8,10,12,14
0.850.800.60
Martin and Thompson 2000 [20]EnglishMI
(n = 194)
EFA31: 2,4,6,7,8,10,12,14
2: 3,9,13
3: 1,5,11
0.760.720.54
  1. ML maximum likelihood; PCF principal component analysis; CFA confirmatory factor analysis; IRT item response theory; MSA Mokken scale analysis; EFA exploratory factor analysis; CABG coronary artery bypass graft; PCI percutaneous coronary intervention; AMI acute myocardial infarction; MGCFA meta group confirmatory factor analysis; MI myocardial infarction