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Table 3 The impacts of nocturia and poor sleep quality on health-related quality of life

From: The mediating role of sleep quality in the association between nocturia and health-related quality of life

 NocturiaSleep disturbance
 (Nocturia < 2)(Nocturia ≥2)Cohen’s d Effect sizeNo
(PSQI global score ≤ 5)
Yes
(PSQI global score > 5)
Cohen’s d Effect size
 Mean (SD)Mean (SD) Mean (SD)Mean (SD) 
SF-12 v2 *
Physical Functioning87.39 (20.80)79.22 (27.09) **0.3490.31 (19.65)81.27 (24.67) **0.41
Role Physical79.80 (21.70)74.76 (25.46) *0.2184.85 (19.62)73.88 (24.07) **0.50
Bodily Pain66.98 (27.20)63.62 (29.28)0.1274.24 (26.11)60.51 (27.70) **0.51
General Health54.25 (26.43)38.68 (25.38) **0.6057.36 (25.84)44.02 (26.58) **0.51
Vitality59.04 (23.69)51.76 (24.61) **0.3066.41 (22.43)50.42 (23.23) **0.70
Social Functioning81.29 (22.43)75.96 (26.77) *0.2288.38 (17.20)73.83 (26.00) **0.66
Role Emotional79.54 (20.91)75.00 (25.36)0.2087.56 (17.11)71.92 (23.40) **0.76
Mental Health69.95 (17.79)66.27 (22.02)0.1876.26 (16.42)63.91 (19.44) **0.69
Physical Component Summary48.81 (8.19)45.48 (9.24) **0.3849.83 (7.20)46.38 (9.27) **0.42
Mental Component Summary50.81 (9.48)48.99 (11.15)0.1854.63 (8.02)47.29 (10.21) **0.80
  1. ^: independent t-test, p-value < 0.05
  2. ^^: independent t-test, p-value < 0.01
  3. *: higher scores indicating better health-related quality of life
  4. Abbreviation: PSQI Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, SF-12 v2 the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey version 2, SD standard deviation