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Table 6 Nor-SWAL-QOL sensitivity to severity by food consistency eatena and tube feeding statusb

From: Cultural adaptation and validation of the Norwegian version of the swallowing quality of life questionnaire (SWAL-QOL)

Nor-SWAL-QOLRegulara (n = 38)Softa (n = 38)Pureed/blendeda (n = 11)Kruskal-Wallis Test
Sign. p value
Kruskal-Wallis Test – pairwise comparisons
Adj. sign. p value
Tube fedb (n = 20)Not tube fedb (n = 81)p value
 Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)  Mean (SD)Mean (SD) 
Burden53.9 (28.2)44.6 (26.4)32.1 (24.7)p=0.052 25.2 (26.6)49.6 (26.9)p=0.001**
Food selection71.0 (27.1)56.1 (29.4)33.1 (25.8)p=0.001*p=0.001**41.4 (33.2)61.6 (30.2)p=0.016*
Eating duration49.7 (29.7)40.1 (28.0)22.9 (23.8)p=0.023*p=0.022**24.6 (29.2)44.0 (28.9)p=0.004*
Eating desire79.0 (19.7)66.3 (25.3)56.0 (28.1)p=0.011*p=0.030**40.0 (34.7)71.6 (23.7)p<0.001**
Fear70.5 (22.2)63.1 (26.2)50.2 (31.1)p=0.145 55.2 (34.6)64.3 (25.6)p=0.326
Sleep62.0 (29.0)60.4 (32.6)58.2 (34.7)p=0.985 52.8 (27.7)61.4 (31.9)p=0.201
Fatigue57.7 (25.3)50.0 (31.9)50.8 (24.1)p=0.548 45.0 (28.4)54.8 (28.2)p=0.210
Communication73.1 (29.7)60.4 (30.8)44.4 (34.1)p=0.023*p=0.038**44.6 (36.6)66.5 (30.9)p=0.017*
Mental health53.1 (26.6)46.3 (28.1)31.4 (19.1)p=0.096 35.0 (28.7)49.0 (27.7)p=0.051
Social functioning64.9 (28.2)55.4 (30.8)37.0 (30.3)p=0.033*p=0.031**30.0 (25.5)60.3 (30.1)p<0.001**
Symptom frequency battery63.4 (13.2)52.1 (19.3)48.1 (21.9)p=0.012*p=0.030***45.4 (22.4)58.2 (17.9)p=0.023*
  1. aFood consistency sample limited to persons taking oral nutrition
  2. *Statistically significant differences at p<0.05
  3. ** Adjusted statistically significant difference between regular and puree/blended
  4. *** Adjusted statistically significant difference between regular and soft
  5. bTube feeding status
  6. *Statistically significant differences at p<0.05 for food selection, eating duration, communication and symptom frequency battery
  7. **Statistically significant differences at p<0.01 for burden, eating desire and social functioning