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Table 5 Construct validity; differences in the Nor-SWAL-QOL between oropharyngeal dysphagia and control group scores on Symptom frequency battery

From: Cultural adaptation and validation of the Norwegian version of the swallowing quality of life questionnaire (SWAL-QOL)

Nor-SWAL-QOLOD group (n = 102)Control group (n = 123Mann Whitney U Sign. (two-tailed)Effect size r
Symptom frequency batteryMean (SD)Mean (SD)
Coughing2.24 (1.0)4.75 (0.5)p < 0.0010.85
Choke on food3.50 (1.2)4.96 (0.2)p < 0.0010.72
Choke on liquids3.61 (1.2)4.98 (0.1)p < 0.0010.69
Thick saliva, phlegm2.56 (1.3)4.76 (0.7)p < 0.0010.73
Gagging3.72 (1.1)4.94 (0.3)p < 0.0010.68
Drooling3.41 (1.4)4.92 (0.3)p < 0.0010.66
Problems chewing3.68 (1.5)4.97 (0.2)p < 0.0010.60
Excess saliva, phlegm2.81 (1.4)4.90 (0.4)p < 0.0010.75
Clear throat2.47 (1.4)4.66 (0.6)p < 0.0010.79
Food stick in throat2.94 (1.1)4.89 (0.4)p < 0.0010.80
Food stick in mouth3.39 (1.3)4.99 (0.1)p < 0.0010.75
Dribble from mouth3.85 (1.3)5.00 (0.0)p < 0.0010.62
Dribble from nose4.29 (1.0)5.00 (0.0)p < 0.0010.52
Cough food stuck2.84 (1.3)4.93 (0.3)p < 0.0010.81