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Table 1 Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the sample

From: Health-related quality of life of patients diagnosed with COPD in Extremadura, Spain: results from an observational study

VariableSubcategoryTotal
Gender (%)Male76.2%
Female23.8%
Age in years (mean ± SD) 71.8 ± 10.3
Age group (%)Under 6520.7%
65 years or older79.3%
Smoking history (%)Current smoker16.7%
Ex-smoker69.6%
Never smoked13.7%
Daily cigarettes (mean ± SD)Smokers14.1 ± 10.3
Ex-smokers27.3 ± 16.4
Education level (%)Does not know how to read or write6.0%
No education33.9%
Primary education35.9%
Secondary education18.5%
University education5.7%
Employment status (%)Early retirement/retired78.9%
Actively working7.9%
Domestic work7.1%
Unemployed3.4%
Permanent leave1.6%
Temporary leave1.1%
FEV1/FVC (mean ± SD)a 60.3 ± 18.7
FEV1% (mean ± SD)b 66.7 ± 22.3
Level of severity (%)GOLD I10.9%
GOLD II20.5%
GOLD III9.1%
GOLD IV1.3%
Unknown/not available58.3%
Presence of exacerbations in the last 12 months (%)c 36.7%
Number of exacerbations in the last 12 months (mean ± SD)c 0.6 ± 1.2
Number of comorbidities (mean ± SD) 7.0 ± 4.0
Main comorbidities (%)Cardiovascular comorbidityd57.5%
Dyslipidaemia/Lipid metabolism disorder41.5%
Uncomplicated hypertension38.3%
Diabetes Mellitus (type 1 + type 2)27.2%
Arthritis/Arthrosis20.0%
Cancer/malignancy14.8%
Hypertension with target organ involvement13.0%
Anaemia6.7%
Depression6.2%
Asthma6.0%
Osteoporosis3.9%
BMI (mean ± SD)e 30.0 ± 5.0
Classification of BMI according to the WHO (%)Insufficient weight0.8%
Normal weight3.4%
Overweight16.1%
Obesity18.4%
Unknown/not available61.4%
  1. SD standard deviation, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in the first second, absolute value, FVC forced vital capacity, FEV1% forced expiratory volume in the first second, percentage value, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, BMI Body Mass Index, MRC Medical Research Council, WHO World Health Organization. Number of valid cases: 386, unless specifically indicated. aNumber of valid cases: 123; bNumber of valid cases: 140; cNumber of valid cases: 215; dIncludes unspecified cardiac arrhythmia, atherosclerosis or peripheral arterial disease, valvular heart disease, atrial fibrillation/atrial flutter, acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, cardiac ischaemia with angina, cardiac ischaemia without angina, other cardiac diseases, other cardiovascular diseases, other cardiovascular signs/symptoms, and paroxysmal tachycardia; eNumber of valid cases: 149