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Table 6 Known-group comparisons of the WHOQOL-HIV-BREF scores

From: Assessing quality of life in people with HIV in Spain: psychometric testing of the Spanish version of WHOQOL-HIV-BREF

  CD4+ T cells   Viral load (copies mm3)  
  <  200
(N = 70)
201–400
(N = 153)
>  400
(n = 996)
   Undetectable (n = 1321) Detectable
(n = 87)
  Cohen’s d
Domains and items Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD p-Value η2 Mean ± SD Mean ± SD p-Value  
Overall QoL/General Health 13.8 ± 3.8 14.1 ± 3.7 15.2 ± 3.5 .000 0.014 15.1 ± 3.5 14.2 ± 4.2 .128 0.253
 How would you rate your QoL? 3.3 ± 1.2 3.4 ± 1.1 3.7 ± 1.0 .000 0.012 3.7 ± 1.1 3.5 ± 1.2 .279 0.180
 How satisfied are you with your health? 3.7 ± 1.1 3.7 ± 1.0 3.9 ± 0.9 .002 0.010 3.9 ± 0.9 3.6 ± 1.1 .050 0.328
Physical health 14.7 ± 3.5 15.0 ± 3.2 15.6 ± 3.2 .004 0.008 15.6 ± 3.2 14.8 ± 3.7 .084 0.247
 Pain and discomforta 3.8 ± 1.3 3.9 ± 1.2 4.0 ± 1.2 .312 0.002 4.0 ± 1.2 3.8 ± 1.3 .069 0.165
 Symptoms of HIVa 3.9 ± 1.2 4.1 ± 1.2 4.3 ± 1.1 .001 0.014 4.3 ± 1.1 4.0 ± 1.1 .078 0.272
 Energy and fatigue 3.7 ± 1.1 3.8 ± 0.9 4.0 ± 1.0 .044 0.005 3.9 ± 1.0 3.9 ± 1.0 .511 0
 Sleep and rest 3.3 ± 1.2 3.3 ± 1.1 3.4 ± 1.2 .190 0.002 3.4 ± 1.1 3.2 ± 1.3 .143 0.179
Psychological health 14.8 ± 3.2 14.7 ± 2.9 15.1 ± 3.0 .322 0.001 15.0 ± 3.0 14.8 ± 3.3 .633 0.066
 Positive feelings 3.8 ± 1.2 3.8 ± 1.0 4.0 ± 1.0 .019 0.001 4.0 ± 1.0 3.9 ± 1.2 .575 0.009
 Concentration ability 3.7 ± 0.8 3.5 ± 1.0 3.6 ± 1.0 .326 0.002 3.6 ± 1.0 3.6 ± 1.0 .708 0
 Bodily image self-acceptance 4.0 ± 1.1 3.9 ± 1.0 4.0 ± 1.0 .781 0.000 4.0 ± 0.9 4.0 ± 1.0 .833 0
 Self-satisfaction 3.9 ± 1.2 3.8 ± 1.0 3.9 ± 1.0 .695 0.000 3.9 ± 1.0 3.8 ± 1.1 .396 0.099
 Negative feelingsa 3.1 ± 1.1 3.4 ± 1.0 3.3 ± 1.1 .139 0.004 3.4 ± 1.1 3.2 ± 1.1 .134 0.181
Level of Independence 14.8 ± 3.5 14.7 ± 3.1 15.7 ± 3.1 .000 0.011 15.6 ± 3.1 15.3 ± 3.4 .478 0.096
 Dependence on medicationa 3.1 ± 1.5 3.1 ± 1.4 3.5 ± 1.5 .003 0.009 3.4 ± 1.5 3.3 ± 1.5 .440 0.066
 Mobility 4.4 ± 0.9 4.4 ± 0.8 4.5 ± 0.8 .081 0.003 4.5 ± 0.8 4.5 ± 0.8 .969 0
 Activities of daily living 3.7 ± 1.1 3.7 ± 0.9 4.0 ± 0.9 .004 0.007 3.9 ± 0.9 3.8 ± 1.0 .457 0.110
 Work capacity 3.6 ± 1.3 3.6 ± 1.2 3.8 ± 1.1 .082 0.003 3.8 ± 1.1 3.7 ± 1.2 .520 0.090
Social relations 14.5 ± 3.9 14.6 ± 3.1 15.1 ± 3.1 .075   15.1 ± 3.2 14.4 ± 3.7 .081 0.216
 Social inclusion 4.1 ± 1.0 4.2 ± 0.9 4.1 ± 0.9 .985 0.000 4.2 ± 0.9 4.0 ± 1.0 .161 0.220
 Personal relationships 3.7 ± 1.2 3.8 ± 1.0 3.8 ± 1.0 .942 0.000 3.8 ± 1.0 3.8 ± 1.2 .822 0
 Sexual satisfaction 2.8 ± 1.5 2.9 ± 1.3 3.3 ± 1.3 .000 0.013 3.3 ± 1.3 2.9 ± 1.4 .003 0.306
 Social support 3.8 ± 1.3 3.8 ± 1.0 4.0 ± 1.0 .308 0.001 3.9 ± 1.0 3.7 ± 1.2 .111 0.197
Environmental health 14.7 ± 2.9 15.0 ± 2.3 15.5 ± 2.4 .005 0.003 15.4 ± 2.5 15.0 ± 2.7 .244 0.159
 Physical safety and security 3.6 ± 1.1 3.7 ± 0.9 3.8 ± 0.9 .196 0.003 3.8 ± 0.9 3.6 ± 1.0 .306 0.220
 Physical environment 3.8 ± 1.0 3.9 ± 0.9 4.0 ± 0.9 .279 0.002 4.0 ± 0.9 3.8 ± 1.1 .145 0.218
 Financial resources 2.7 ± 1.1 3.0 ± 1.0 3.2 ± 1.1 .000 0.015 3.1 ± 1.1 3.0 ± 1.2 .241 0.090
 Information for daily living 4.0 ± 1.0 4.1 ± 0.8 4.1 ± 0.8 .681 0.001 4.1 ± 0.8 4.1 ± 0.9 .754 0
 Participation in leisure activities 3.5 ± 1.3 3.5 ± 1.1 3.9 ± 1.0 .000 0.019 3.8 ± 1.1 3.6 ± 1.2 .081 0.180
 Home environment 3.9 ± 1.2 3.9 ± 1.0 4.0 ± 1.0 .374 0.001 4.0 ± 1.0 3.9 ± 1.1 .353 0.099
 Accessibility of health services 4.4 ± 0.8 4.1 ± 0.9 4.2 ± 0.8 .111 0.003 4.2 ± 0.8 4.3 ± 0.9 .538 −0.124
 Transport 3.7 ± 1.2 3.9 ± 1.0 3.9 ± 1.0 .337 0.002 3.9 ± 1.0 3.9 ± 1.0 .562 0
SRPB 14.0 ± 3.4 14.9 ± 3.3 14.5 ± 3.5 .209 0.002 14.6 ± 3.5 14.1 ± 3.7 .213 0.142
 Personal life meaning 4.0 ± 1.2 4.0 ± 1.0 4.1 ± 1.0 .451 0.001 4.1 ± 1.0 4.1 ± 1.1 .926 0
 Forgiveness and blamea 2.8 ± 1.7 3.7 ± 1.5 3.3 ± 1.6 .001 0.010 3.3 ± 1.6 3.3 ± 1.6 .974 0
 Concerns about the futurea 3.5 ± 1.3 3.5 ± 1.2 3.4 ± 1.3 .771 0.000 3.5 ± 1.2 3.2 ± 1.4 .024 0.247
 Death and dyinga 3.7 ± 1.4 3.8 ± 1.2 3.7 ± 1.2 .685 0.000 3.7 ± 1.2 3.5 ± 1.4 .283 0.164
  1. Notes: SRPB Spirituality, Religion and Personal Beliefs. η2 = F-test effect size. Cohen’s d = t-test effect size. Near to 4% (N = 54) of the participants stated not knowing their viral load copies, and 16.6% (N = 243) stated being unsure of the amount of CD4 + T cells
  2. a Reversed items recoded