Skip to main content

Table 1 Sample and item descriptive statistics

From: Measurement invariance properties and external construct validity of the short Warwick-Edinburgh mental wellbeing scale in a large national sample of secondary school students in Wales

Variable Mean (SD) Response options N (%)
Gender
 Male   45,961 (49)
 Female   46,977 (50)
 Prefer not to say   1538 (2)
School year
 Year 7   19,532 (21)
 Year 8   19,960 (21)
 Year 9   20,354 (22)
 Year 10   18,415 (19)
 Year 11   16,215 (17)
Family affluence
 Low   30,733 (34)
 Medium   28,363 (31)
 High   31,252 (35)
Ethnicity
 White British   79,380 (86)
 White non-British   4302 (5)
 BME   8546 (9)
SWEMWBS items   None of the time Rarely Some of the time Often All of the time
Item 1 “I’ve been feeling optimistic about the future”   8936 (9) 17,633 (19) 28,578 (30) 26,825 (28) 12,504 (13)
Item 2 “I’ve been feeling useful”   7070 (7) 17,073 (18) 32,657 (35) 28,954 (31) 8722 (9)
Item 3 “I’ve been feeling relaxed”   5630 (6) 16,115 (17) 26,771 (28) 31,934 (34) 14,026 (15)
Item 4 “I’ve been dealing with problems well”   7636 (8) 15,414 (16) 28,701 (30) 29,655 (31) 13,070 (14)
Item 5 “I’ve been thinking clearly”   5020 (5) 13,017 (14) 26,759 (28) 32,610 (35) 17,070 (18)
Item 6 “I’ve been feeling close to other people”   5109 (5) 10,989 (12) 21,543 (23) 31,032 (33) 25,803 (27)
Item 7 “I’ve been able to make up my own mind about things”   3396 (4) 7799 (8) 17,972 (19) 32,901 (35) 32,408 (34)
School pressure   Not at all A little Some A lot  
  15,179 (17) 31,292 (35) 21,613 (24) 21,697 (24)  
Been bullied   Haven’t Once or twice 2 or 3 times a month About once a week Several times a week
  53,203 (64) 17,558 (21) 4326 (5) 3011 (4) 4561 (6)
Somatising symptomatology   Rarely or never About every month About every week More than once a week About everyday
 Feeling low   38,074 (41 17,934 (19) 13,484 (15) 13,263 (14) 9348 (10)
 Irritable   29,876 (32) 18,502 (20) 15,744 (17) 15,825 (17) 12,417 (13)
 Nervous   33,964 (37) 20,447 (22) 15,041 (16) 12,403 (13) 10,929 (12)
 Sleep difficulties   42,078 (45) 12,050 (13) 9908 (11) 12,363 (13) 16,392 (18)
Life satisfaction 7.51 (11.66)