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Table 2 Regression analyses with sex as a moderator of the relationship between psychological factors and study outcomes (whole sample)

From: Individual differences and health in chronic pain: are sex-differences relevant?

  Criterion PF GH MH PS PI
Model Predictor β ΔR 2 β ΔR 2 β ΔR 2 β ΔR 2 β ΔR 2
1 N −0.09 .016 − 0.19 .109* − 0.65* .326* 0.18 .023* 0.26 .050*
Sex 0.12 .013 0.04 <.001 0.10 .008 −0.16* .024* − 0.07 .003
N*Sex −0.04 <.001 −0.15 .001 0.10 <.001 −0.04 <.001 −0.04 <.001
2 E 0.09 .011 0.13 .043* 0.34 .080* −0.22 <.001 −0.32 .005
Sex 0.14 .019 0.09 .006 0.17* .028* −0.17* .026* −0.09 .007
E* Sex 0.04 <.001 0.09 <.001 −0.05 <.001 0.23 .004 0.24 .004
3 O 0.06 .021 0.15 .015 .017 .006 −0.14 .001 −0.07 <.001
Sex 0.13 .014 0.07 .003 0.16 .022 −0.17* .027 −0.09 .003
O*Sex 0.09 <.001 −0.02 <.001 −0.09 <.001 0.10 <.001 0.08 <.001
4 A 0.17 <.001 0.25 <.001 0.31 .009 0.14 .002 −0.09 <.001
Sex 0.13 .015 0.07 .003 0.17* .026* −0.17* .027 −0.09 .004
A*Sex −0.21 .003 −0.31 .008 −0.21 .002 −0.09 <.001 0.07 <.001
5 C 0.24 .020 0.09 .044* .023 .076* −0.12 <.001 − 0.21 .001
Sex 0.14 .018 < 0.01 .004 0.16* .025* −0.17* .026* −0.09 .006
C*Sex −0.09 <.001 0.55 <.001 0.05 <.001 0.14 <.001 0.16 <.001
6 PPO 0.25 .026* 0.12 .059* 0.28 .048* −0.17 .001 −0.35 <.001
Sex 0.13 .013 0.06 .001 0.14 .018 −0.17* .027* −0.09 .004
PPO*Sex −0.10 <.001 0.13 <.001 −0.07 <.001 0.14 <.001 0.33 .010
7 NPO −0.26 .041* −0.34 .126* −0.57* .265* 0.13 .015 0.19 .025*
Sex 0.12 .010 0.03 <.001 0.09 .006 −0.16* .023* − 0.07 .003
NPO*Sex 0.07 <.001 −0.02 <.001 0.07 <.001 0.03 <.001 −0.04 <.001
8 RPS 0.05 .005 −0.07 .018 0.21 .037* −0.26 .001 −0.23 <.001
Sex 0.13 .014 0.05 .001 0.13 .015 −0.18* .026* −0.09 .004
RPS*Sex 0.02 <.001 0.22 .003 −0.03 <.001 0.24 .004 0.21 .003
9 AS −0.30 .034* −0.30 .047* −0.54* .081* 0.17 <.001 0.22 <.001
Sex 0.15 .021* 0.09 .006 0.17* .028* −0.17* .026* − 0.09 .005
AS*Sex 0.10 <.001 0.08 <.001 0.25 .005 −0.17 .001 −0.18 .002
10 ICS −0.32 .020 −0.21 .033* −0.35 .054* 0.36 .018 0.21 .008
Sex 0.14 .018 0.08 .005 0.16* .024* −0.18* .030* −0.09 .006
ICS*Sex 0.18 .002 0.02 <.001 0.12 <.001 −0.23 .004 −0.12 <.001
11 DEM −0.25 .006 −0.13 .012 −0.33 .041* 0.17 .002 0.17 .002
Sex 0.13 .015 0.07 .002 .015 .019 −0.17* .029* −0.09 .007
Sex*DEM 0.18 .002 0.02 <.001 0.14 <.001 −0.12 <.001 −0.13 .002
12 CAT −0.15 .013 −0.20 .073* −0.57* .219* 0.13 <.001 0.11 .011
Sex 0.13 .014 0.06 .002 0.13 .013 −0.17* .027* −0.08 .004
CAT*Sex 0.03 <.001 −0.08 <.001 0.12 <.001 −0.10 <.001 −0.01 <.001
13 LFT −0.06 .006 −0.12 .086* −0.59* .227* −0.03 .001 0.05 .006
Sex 0.13 .016 0.06 .002 0.13 .016 −0.17* .027* −0.08 .005
LFT*Sex −0.03 <.001 −0.19 .002 0.13 <.001 0.08 <.001 0.04 <.001
14 SD 0.10 .017 −0.11 .096* − 0.45* .212* 0.06 .004 0.17 .024*
Sex 0.13 .014 0.05 .001 0.12 .012 −0.17* .026* −0.08 .003
SD*Sex −0.24 .005 −0.21 .003 < 0.01 <.001 < 0.01 <.001 −0.01 <.001
  1. β = standardized beta from the last step of the regression equation. Sex (1 = female; 2 = male). All predictors were centered
  2. N neuroticism, E extraversion, O openness to experience, A agreeableness, C conscientiousness, PPO a positive problem orientation, NPO a negative problem orientation, RPS rational problem solving, ICS impulsive-careless style, AS avoidant style, DEM demandingness, CAT catastrophizing, LFT low frustration tolerance, SD self-downing, PF physical functioning, GH general health, MH mental health, PS pain severity, PI pain interference
  3. *p < .001