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Table 3 Multilevel logistic regression estimates of odds ratios of being overweight (Model 4) and the mediating effect of lifestyle choice on being overweight (Model 5)

From: Exploring the links between population density, lifestyle, and being overweight: secondary data analyses of middle-aged and older Chinese adults

Variable Model 4a Model 4b
OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Fixed part
Independent variable
 Logarithm of neighbourhood population density 1.062*** (1.019–1.108) 1.027**(1.013–1.073)
Individual-level attributes
 Logarithm of time spent on physical exercise 0.903*** (0.858–0.950) 0.901***(0.856–0.949)
 Motorized traveller (ref: non-motorized traveller) 3.599*** (2.833–4.571) 2.667***(2.048–3.472)
 Male (ref: female) 0.921 (0.775–1.093) 0.924 (0.777–1.098)
 Age 0.971*** (0.964–0.978) 0.970***(0.963–0.977)
 Married (ref: single, divorced, or widowed) 1.220+ (1.000–1.488) 1.218*(0.998–1.487)
Education (ref: ≤ primary school)
 Junior high school 1.070 (0.911–1.256) 1.041 (0.886–1.223)
 ≥ Senior high school 1.001 (0.802–1.247) 0.881 (0.702–1.107)
 Living in an urban area (ref: rural) 1.524*** (1.285–1.808) 1.504***(1.266–1.786)
 Having meals ≤ three times a day (ref: meals > three times a day) 1.133 (0.933–1.376) 1.157 (0.952–1.406)
 Smoker (ref: non-smoker) 0.741*** (0.626–0.877) 0.741***(0.626–0.878)
 Drinking (ref: non-drinker) 0.871* (0.751–1.009) 0.867*(0.747–1.006)
 Having medical insurance (ref: no) 0.943 (0.741–1.200) 0.941 (0.738–1.199)
 Having a physical disease (ref: no) 1.751*** (1.538–1.993) 1.759***(1.545–2.004)
 Logarithm of household income per capita 1.004 (0.978–1.030) 1.005 (0.979–1.031)
Neighbourhood-level attributes
 Logarithm of neighbourhood income per capita 0.993 (0.959–1.027) 0.991 (0.957–1.027)
 Neighbourhood sports facilities (ref: no) 0.741** (0.582–0.944) 0.737**(0.578–0.941)
 Neighbourhood sports groups (ref: no) 1.154 (0.908–1.466) 1.172 (0.920–1.494)
Cross-level interaction
 Logarithm of neighbourhood population density × Logarithm of time spent on physical exercise   1.001 (0.973–1.031)
 Logarithm of neighbourhood population density × Motorized traveller (ref: non-motorized traveller)   1.476***(1.296–1.682)
 Constant 2.016* (0.988–4.116) 2.641***(1.280–5.448)
Random part
 Variable (constant) 0.129*** 0.133***
 Number of individuals 5285 5285
 Number of neighbourhoods 405 405
 AIC 6627.554 6591.104
 Log likelihood − 3293.777 − 3273.552
  1. Note. OR odds ratio; CI = confidence interva; AIC = Akaike information criterion. *p < .10, *p < .05, ***p < .01