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Table 7 Linear regression estimates of the influence of both the better-seeing and worse-seeing eyes on the NEI VFQ-25 socioemotional scale score in the German population-based Gutenberg Health Study (GHS), 2007–2012

From: Vision-related quality of life considering both eyes: results from the German population-based Gutenberg Health Study (GHS)

Category of visual impairment considering better-seeing and worse-seeing eye Model 1a Model 1b
(n = 11,941, R2 = 0.09) (n = 11,889, R2 = 0.09)
  Estimate (CI) Estimate (CI)
BE no VI, WE mild VI −2.0a − 1.9a
(−2.6; −1.3) (−2.6; − 1.2)
BE no VI, WE mild VI −5.7a − 5.7a
(−6.4; − 5.0) (− 6.4; − 5.0)
BE mild VI & WE mild VI − 10.4a −9.6a
(−12.8; − 8.1) (− 12.0; −7.2)
BE mild VI & WE moderate/ severe VI − 16.0a −15.9a
(−18.4; −13.6) (− 18.3; − 13.5)
BE moderate/ severe VI, WE moderate/ severe VI −20.9a −19.8a
(−23.6; − 18.2) (−22.6; − 17.1)
  1. BE Better-seeing eye, WE Worse-seeing eye, VI Vision impairment; no VI: < 0.32 logMAR, mild VI: 0.32–0.5 logMAR; moderate/severe VI: > 0.5 logMAR; all models adjusted for age and sex using both eyes with no VI as reference; model 1b additionally adjusted for socioeconomic status; CI: 95% confidence interval; a: p < 0.0001, R2: adjusted R2