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Table 6 Linear regression estimates of the influence of both the better-seeing and worse-seeing eyes on the NEI VFQ-25 visual functioning scale score in the German population-based Gutenberg Health Study (GHS), 2007–2012

From: Vision-related quality of life considering both eyes: results from the German population-based Gutenberg Health Study (GHS)

Category of visual impairment considering better-seeing and worse-seeing eye Model 1a Model 1b
(n = 11,941, R2 = 0.12) (n = 11,889, R2 = 0.12)
  Estimate (CI) Estimate (CI)
BE no VI, WE mild VI −5.2a −5.0a
(−6.1; −4.2) (−6.0; −4.1)
BE no VI, WE moderate/ severe VI −9.03a −9.01a
(−10.0; −8.0) (−10.0; −8.0)
BE mild VI & WE mild VI −14.3a − 14.5a
(−17.6; − 11.0) (− 17.8; − 11.1)
BE mild VI & WE moderate/ severe VI −24.3a −24.1a
(−27.7; − 21.0) (− 27.4; -20.8)
BE moderate/ severe VI, WE moderate/ severe VI − 25.3a − 24.4a
(−29.1; − 21.5) (− 28.3; −20.5)
  1. BE Better-seeing eye, WE Worse-seeing eye, VI Vision impairment; no VI: < 0.32 logMAR, mild VI: 0.32–0.5 logMAR; moderate/severe VI: > 0.5 logMAR); all models adjusted for age and sex using both eyes with no VI as a reference; model 1b additionally adjusted for socioeconomic status; CI: 95% confidence interval; a: p < 0.0001, R2: adjusted R2