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Table 1 Participant Socio-demographic Characteristics

From: Development and content validity of the Lupus Foundation of America rapid evaluation of activity in lupus (LFA-REAL™): a patient-reported outcome measure for lupus disease activity

Participant Characteristics Total
N = 25
Phase 1
N = 10
Phase II
N = 15
Age (years)
 Mean (SD) 45.7(13.5) 42.6 (13.8) 47.7(13.5)
Gender, n (%)
 Female 22 (88.0%) 8 (80.0%) 14 (93.3%)
Ethnicity, n (%)
 Hispanic 5 (20.0%) 3 (30.0%) 2 (13.3%)
Race, n (%)1
 American Indian or Alaska Native 3 (12.0%) 1 (10.0%) 2 (13.3%)
 Asian 1 (4.0%) 1 (6.7%)
 Black or African American 7 (28.0%) 3 (30.0%) 4 (26.7%)
 Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander 2 (8.0%) 2 (13.3%)
 White 11 (44.0%) 6 (60.0%) 5 (33.3%)
 Other2 5 (20.0%) 1 (10.0%) 4 (26.7%)
Marital status, n (%)
 Single 7 (28.0%) 2 (20.0%) 5 (33.3%)
 Married 11 (44.0%) 6 (60.0%) 5 (33.3%)
 Divorced 4 (16.0%) 4 (26.7%)
 Separated 1 (4.0%) 1 (10.0%)
 Widowed 1 (4.0%) 1 (6.7%)
 Other3 1 (4.0%) 1 (10.0%)
Current living/domestic situation, n (%)
 Living alone 4 (16.0%) 1 (10.0%) 3 (20.0%)
 Living with a spouse, partner, family, or friends 20 (80.0%) 9 (90.0%) 11 (73.3%)
 Other4 1 (4.0%) 1 (6.7%)
Employment status, n (%)1
 Employed, full-time 6 (24.0%) 3 (30.0%) 3 (20.0%)
 Employed, part-time 5 (20.0%) 2 (20.0%) 3 (20.0%)
 Homemaker 2 (8.0%) 1 (10.0%) 1 (6.7%)
 Student 1 (4.0%) 1 (6.7%)
 Unemployed 2 (8.0%) 2 (13.3%)
 Retired 2 (8.0%) 2 (13.3%)
Disabled 12 (48.0%) 6 (60.0%) 6 (40.0%)
Highest level of education, n (%)
 Secondary/high school 2 (8.0%) 1 (10.0%) 1 (6.7%)
 Technical or vocational degree 2 (8.0%) 2 (13.3%)
 Some college/university 7 (28.0%) 5 (50.0%) 2 (13.3%)
 College/university degree (BA, BS) 7 (28.0%) 3 (30.0%) 4 (26.7%)
 Postgraduate degree (MA, PhD) 6 (24.0%) 1 (10.0%) 5 (33.3%)
 Other5 1 (4.0%) 1 (6.7%)
General health status within the past week, n (%)
 Excellent
 Very Good 1 (4.0%) 1 (10.0%)
 Good 12 (48.0%) 5 (50.0%) 7 (46.7%)
 Fair 10 (40.0%) 4 (40.0%) 6 (40.0%)
 Poor 2 (8.0%) 2 (13.3%)