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Table 5 Associations of strabismus with parent-reported mental health scores (age 3–17 years). Data from the KiGGS Study 2003–2006

From: Health-related quality of life and mental health in children and adolescents with strabismus – results of the representative population-based survey KiGGS

Mental health domain Crude Beta
N = 12,895
Adjusted Betaa
N = 11,708
Total score 1.31 [0.78; 1.84] 1.00 [0.51; 1.49]
Emotional symptoms 0.40 [0.23; 0.57] 0.24 [0.07; 0.41]
Conduct problems 0.08 [− 0.06; 0.23] 0.05 [− 0.10; 0.21]
Hyperactivity/inattention 0.46 [0.19; 0.72] 0.42 [0.18; 0.66]
Peer problems 0.36 [0.19; 0.53] 0.28 [0.11; 0.45]
Prosocial behavior −0.03 [− 0.18; 0.13] −0.01 [− 0.18; 0.15]
  1. Results are given as crude and adjusted betas (95% confidence intervals) calculated by linear regression analysis
  2. a Adjusted for age, sex, siblings, socio-economic status, migrant background, residence (rural/small town/town/city), East/West Germany, presence of chronic medical condition, type of day care, and official disability