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Table 4 Parent-reported mental health scores stratified by the presence/absence of strabismus (age 3–17 years). Data from the KiGGS Study 2003–2006

From: Health-related quality of life and mental health in children and adolescents with strabismus – results of the representative population-based survey KiGGS

Mental health domain No Strabismus
N = 12,320
Strabismus
N = 575
Cohen’s d p-value
Total score 8.08 ± 0.05 9.39 ± 0.27 0.22 < 0.001
Emotional symptoms 1.73 ± 0.02 2.13 ± 0.09 0.19 < 0.001
Conduct problems 1.94 ± 0.02 2.02 ± 0.07 0.05 0.24
Hyperactivity/inattention 3.03 ± 0.02 3.48 ± 0.13 0.17 0.001
Peer problems 1.40 ± 0.02 1.76 ± 0.09 0.18 < 0.001
Prosocial behavior 7.80 ± 0.02 7.78 ± 0.08 −0.01 0.73
  1. Results are given as mean ± standard error. Statistics were performed by linear regression model for a complex sample structure. P-values are given for descriptive purposes only