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Table 2 Parent-reported health-related quality of life scores stratified by the presence/absence of strabismus (age 3–17 years). Data from the KiGGS Study 2003–2006

From: Health-related quality of life and mental health in children and adolescents with strabismus – results of the representative population-based survey KiGGS

Health-related quality of life domain No strabismus
N = 12,245
Strabismus
N = 567
Cohen’s d p-value
Total scale 77.2 ± 0.12 75.3 ± 0.43 −0.15 < 0.001
Physical well-being 77.8 ± 0.24 75.6 ± 0.82 −0.14 0.007
Emotional well-being 81.2 ± 0.14 79.7 ± 0.59 −0.09 0.016
Self-esteem 70.0 ± 0.16 67.9 ± 0.68 −0.12 0.003
Family 78.5 ± 0.15 77.5 ± 0.57 −0.06 0.08
Friends 78.3 ± 0.15 75.3 ± 0.71 −0.18 < 0.001
School 77.4 ± 0.19 75.8 ± 0.83 −0.08 0.07
  1. Results are given as mean ± standard error. Statistics were performed by linear regression model for a complex sample structure. P-values are only given for descriptive purposes