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Table 5 Multiple linear and Tobit regression analyses on the health utility index and VAS scores

From: Changes in health-related quality of life of Chinese populations measured by the EQ-5D-3 L: a comparison of the 2008 and 2013 National Health Services Surveys

Independent variable Utility index VAS scores
β SE p 95%CI Effect sizes β SE p 95%CI Effect sizes
Gender (Male as reference)
 Female 0.00 0.00 0.311 −0.00 0.00 0.03 −0.55 0.06 < 0.001 − 0.66 − 0.44 −0.04
Age (< 45 years as reference)
 45~64 −0.11 0.00 < 0.001 −0.11 − 0.10 −1.92 −7.01 0.05 < 0.001 −7.11 −6.91 − 0.51
 65~ −0.21 0.00 < 0.001 −0.21 − 0.21 −3.74 − 13.59 0.08 < 0.001 − 13.75 − 13.43 − 0.99
Smoking (Yes as reference)
 No − 0.02 0.00 < 0.001 − 0.02 − 0.01 − 0.28 − 0.18 0.06 0.006 − 0.30 − 0.05 − 0.01
Drinking (Yes as reference)
 No − 0.02 0.00 < 0.001 − 0.03 − 0.02 − 0.40 −0.95 0.06 < 0.001 − 1.08 − 0.83 − 0.07
Regular physical activity (Yes as reference)
 No −0.02 0.00 < 0.001 −0.03 −0.02 − 0.43 −0.50 0.06 < 0.001 −0.62 − 0.39 − 0.04
Educational attainment (Illiterate as reference)
 Primary school 0.03 0.00 < 0.001 0.03 0.04 0.61 2.39 0.09 < 0.001 2.21 2.56 0.17
 Junior middle school 0.07 0.00 < 0.001 0.06 0.07 1.16 4.46 0.09 < 0.001 4.29 4.64 0.33
 Senior middle school 0.08 0.00 < 0.001 0.08 0.09 1.44 5.11 0.10 < 0.001 4.91 5.31 0.37
 University/college or above 0.09 0.00 < 0.001 0.09 0.10 1.68 5.25 0.12 < 0.001 5.02 5.48 0.38
Household income ranking in local (< 20% as reference)
 20%- 0.03 0.00 < 0.001 0.02 0.03 0.50 1.69 0.08 < 0.001 1.54 1.85 0.12
 40%- 0.04 0.00 < 0.001 0.04 0.04 0.69 2.36 0.08 < 0.001 2.21 2.51 0.17
 60%- 0.05 0.00 < 0.001 0.04 0.05 0.84 2.78 0.08 < 0.001 2.63 2.93 0.20
 Highest (≥80%) 0.05 0.00 < 0.001 0.04 0.05 0.86 3.22 0.08 < 0.001 3.07 3.37 0.23
Residency (Urban as reference)
 Rural 0.01 0.00 < 0.001 0.01 0.02 0.26 1.65 0.05 < 0.001 1.54 1.76 0.12
Region (Eastern as reference)
 Central −0.02 0.00 < 0.001 −0.02 −0.01 −0.31 −1.73 0.06 < 0.001 −1.84 −1.62 −0.13
 Western −0.03 0.00 < 0.001 −0.03 − 0.03 − 0.56 −2.71 0.05 < 0.001 −2.82 −2.61 − 0.20
Year (2008 as reference)
 2013 −0.01 0.00 < 0.001 −0.01 −0.01 − 0.20 1.61 0.05 < 0.001 1.51 1.70 0.12