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Table 3 Reported problems, health utility index and VAS scores stratified by independent variables

From: Changes in health-related quality of life of Chinese populations measured by the EQ-5D-3 L: a comparison of the 2008 and 2013 National Health Services Surveys

Variables Mobility Self-care Usual activities Pain/discomfort Anxiety/depression Mean Utility index (SD) Mean VAS scores (SD)
2008 2013 2008 2013 2008 2013 2008 2013 2008 2013 2008 2013 2008 2013
Gender
 male 4.9 5.7 3.1 3.0 4.5 4.5 8.0 11.0 5.7 4.6 0.986 (0.058) 0.986 (0.056) 80.9 (13.8) 81.6 (13.5)
 female 5.4 6.0 3.5 3.1 5.1 4.8 10.4 14.1 7.1 5.9 0.985 (0.059) 0.984 (0.056) 79.4 (14.2) 80.3 (13.9)
Age
 15~44 1.3 1.0 0.8 0.6 1.2 0.9 3.1 3.7 3.1 2.3 0.996 (0.029) 0.986 (0.029) 85.4 (11.3) 86.9 (10.4)
 45~64 5.1 4.8 3.0 2.3 4.6 3.6 11.4 14.0 7.5 5.8 0.985 (0.057) 0.986 (0.050) 77.5 (13.7) 79.3 (13.3)
 65~ 18.5 19.0 12.5 10.4 17.5 15.3 24.2 28.7 14.7 10.5 0.953 (0.105) 0.956 (0.099) 69.2 (15.0) 71.7 (14.9)
Smoking status
 Yes 4.2 4.7 2.4 2.2 3.8 3.5 8.2 10.8 5.8 4.5 0.988 (0.049) 0.988 (0.045) 80.6 (13.4) 81.6 (13.0)
 No 5.5 6.3 3.5 3.4 5.2 5.1 9.6 13.2 6.7 5.5 0.984 (0.061) 0.984 (0.060) 80.0 (14.2) 80.7 (14.0)
Drinking status
 Yes 3.3 3.8 1.7 1.5 2.6 2.5 7.3 10.3 4.3 4.1 0.991 (0.039) 0.991 (0.037) 81.2 (12.8) 82.3 (12.5)
 No 5.4 6.5 3.5 3.5 5.2 5.3 9.6 13.3 6.8 5.6 0.985 (0.061) 0.983 (0.061) 79.9 (14.2) 80.5 (14.1)
Physical activity
 Yes 4.0 4.5 2.1 2.0 3.4 3.2 7.6 11.9 4.4 4.3 0.990 (0.040) 0.989 (0.038) 80.3 (13.8) 80.9 (13.1)
 No 5.5 6.4 3.6 3.5 5.2 5.3 9.6 12.9 6.9 5.7 0.984 (0.063) 0.983 (0.062) 80.1 (14.1) 80.9 (14.0)
Education status
 Illiterate 13.2 15.4 9.0 8.9 13.0 13.4 20.6 26.6 14.6 11.7 0.964 (0.090) 0.961 (0.091) 72.4 (15.5) 73.1 (15.4)
 Primary school 6.0 8.0 3.8 4.0 5.7 6.1 11.5 17.1 7.5 6.6 0.983 (0.064) 0.980 (0.063) 78.1 (14.1) 78.2 (14.1)
 Junior middle school 2.6 3.6 1.5 1.8 2.3 2.8 5.3 9.0 4.0 3.9 0.992 (0.041) 0.990 (0.044) 83.2 (12.5) 83.1 (12.6)
 Senior middle school 2.6 2.9 1.4 1.4 2.1 2.2 4.8 7.9 3.3 3.2 0.993 (0.040) 0.992 (0.041) 83.2 (12.7) 83.4 (12.5)
 University/college or above 1.9 1.7 1.0 0.8 1.5 1.2 3.7 5.0 2.3 2.5 0.995 (0.031) 0.995 (0.028) 83.6 (12.3) 85.4 (11.2)
Income level
 Lowest (<  20%) 8.0 9.8 5.2 5.3 7.7 8.1 12.5 18.3 9.9 10.0 0.977 (0.074) 0.975 (0.072) 77.0 (15.5) 77.7 (15.6)
 20% - 5.2 6.1 3.3 3.2 4.8 4.8 9.5 13.0 6.8 5.7 0.985 (0.060) 0.984 (0.058) 79.8 (14.1) 80.5 (13.9)
 40%- 4.9 5.0 3.0 2.6 4.4 3.9 8.7 11.7 6.0 4.6 0.987 (0.055) 0.987 (0.052) 80.5 (13.8) 81.6 (13.3)
 60%- 4.0 4.6 2.5 2.3 3.9 3.5 7.8 10.7 5.0 4.2 0.989 (0.051) 0.988 (0.049) 81.2 (13.4) 81.9 (12.9)
 Highest (≥80%) 3.9 4.3 2.6 2.2 3.7 3.3 8.0 10.0 5.0 3.8 0.989 (0.049) 0.989 (0.047) 81.7 (13.1) 82.4 (12.6)
Residency
 Urban 4.7 5.7 2.8 2.8 4.8 4.3 9.3 12.5 6.4 5.0 0.987 (0.055) 0.985 (0.055) 79.3 (14.0) 80.6 (13.8)
 Rural 5.3 6.0 3.5 3.3 5.2 5.0 9.8 12.8 7.0 5.6 0.985 (0.060) 0.984 (0.058) 80.4 (14.1) 81.2 (13.7)
Region
 Eastern 4.4 5.4 2.7 2.8 4.0 4.2 8.2 11.1 4.7 4.2 0.988 (0.053) 0.986 (0.054) 81.7 (13.6) 82.1 (13.2)
 Central 5.1 6.0 3.3 3.1 4.8 4.6 8.9 13.4 5.1 5.5 0.986 (0.061) 0.984 (0.058) 79.9 (14.0) 80.6 (14.0)
 Western 5.9 6.2 3.7 3.2 5.6 5.1 10.5 13.5 9.0 5.5 0.983 (0.061) 0.984 (0.057) 78.8 (14.4) 79.9 (13.9)
Total 5.1 5.9 3.3 3.1 4.8 4.6 9.3 12.6 6.4 5.3 0.985 (0.058) 0.985 (0.056) 80.1 (14.1) 80.9 (13.7)
  1. Significant changes (p < 0.05) between 2008 and 2013 were found in all indicators; Bold figures illustrate consistent changes (increase) in the utility index and VAS scores over the two years