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Table 1 Characteristics of respondents

From: Changes in health-related quality of life of Chinese populations measured by the EQ-5D-3 L: a comparison of the 2008 and 2013 National Health Services Surveys

Characteristics 2008 2013 Total χ2 P value
n % n % n %
Demographic variables
 Gender
  Male 58,169 48.19 89,830 47.60 147,999 47.83 10.26 0.001
  Female 62,540 51.81 98,890 52.40 161,430 52.17
 Age
  15~44 58,233 48.24 73,522 38.96 131,755 42.58 2600.00 < 0.001
  45~64 45,252 37.49 81,532 43.20 126,784 40.97
  65~ 17,224 14.27 33,666 17.84 50,890 16.45
Behavioral variables
 Smoking
  Yes 30,925 25.73 49,208 26.09 80,133 25.95 5.07 0.024
  No 89,285 74.27 139,399 73.91 228,684 74.05
 Drinking
  Yes 15,485 13.04 44,005 23.32 59,490 19.35 4900.00 < 0.001
  No 103,229 86.96 144,706 76.68 247,935 80.65
 Regular physical activity
  Yes 26,831 22.60 55,843 29.67 82,674 26.93 1800.00 < 0.001
  No 91,896 77.40 132,372 70.33 224,268 73.07
Socioeconomic variables
 Educational attainment
  Illiterate 18,841 15.62 22,709 12.03 41,550 13.43 2500.00 < 0.001
  Primary school 33,630 27.88 48,953 25.94 82,583 26.70
  Junior middle school 43,042 35.69 65,877 34.91 108,919 35.21
  Senior middle school 17,941 14.87 32,435 17.19 50,376 16.29
  University/college 7160 5.94 18,746 9.93 25,906 8.37
 Household income ranking in local
  Lowest (<  20%) 22,523 18.68 35,702 18.93 58,225 18.83 39.67 < 0.001
  20% - 23,369 19.38 35,471 18.80 58,840 19.03
  40%- 24,277 20.13 37,124 19.68 61,401 19.86
  60%- 24,166 20.04 39,084 20.72 63,250 20.45
 Highest (≥80%) 26,256 21.77 41,251 21.87 67,507 21.83
Residential variables
 Residency
  Rural 87,262 72.29 94,656 50.16 181,918 58.79 15,000.00 < 0.001
  Urban 33,447 27.71 94,064 49.84 127,511 41.21
 Region
  Eastern 42,305 35.05 66,575 35.28 108,880 35.83 1200.00 < 0.001
  Central 33,175 27.48 58,306 30.90 91,481 30.10
  Western 45,229 37.47 63,839 33.83 103,535 34.07
 Total 120,709 100.00 188,720 100.00 309,429 100.00   
  1. Bold figures indicate a significant increase in 2013 compared with those in 2008 (p < 0.05)