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Table 2 Responsiveness parameters for the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) scales 6 months after discharge according to transitional questions (n = 1211)

From: Responsiveness and minimal clinically important difference of the Minnesota living with heart failure questionnaire

  Physical Emotional Total
Improveda
(n = 393)
The sameb
(n = 335)
Worsenedc
(n = 238)
Improveda
(n = 280)
The sameb
(n = 451)
Worsenedc
(n = 234)
Improveda
(n = 397)
The sameb
(n = 270)
Worsenedc
(n = 296)
Mean (SD)
 At baseline 26.46 (9.31) 25.67 (9.59) 27.30 (9.40) 11.63 (7.11) 11.25 (7.20) 13.36 (7.16) 55.80 (22.60) 53.35 (22.99) 58.26 (24.15)
 At 6 months 15.90 (11.08) 20.64 (11.55) 28.75 (9.57) 7.34 (6.34) 9.26 (7.18) 15.95 (6.69) 33.41 (23.65) 41.67 (25.11) 60.92 (23.79)
 Change 10.41bc (12.46) 5.03ac (11.29) −1.52ab (10.18) 4.07bc (8.00) 1.91ac (8.00) −2.59ab (7.53) 21.83bc (27.51) 11.39ac (26.09) −2.44ab (25.50)
P value* < 0.0001 < 0.0001 0.043 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 0.165
SES (CI 95%) 1.12 (0.94–1.29) 0.52 (0.40–0.68) 0.16 (0.02–0.30) 0.57 (0.43–0.72) 0.27 (0.15–0.36) 0.36 (0.24–0.50) 0.97 (0.84–1.11) 0.50 (0.37–0.63) 0.10 (0.01–0.22)
SRM (CI 95%) 0.84 (0.71–0.97) 0.45 (0.33–0.54) 0.15 (0.02–0.27) 0.51 (0.38–0.63) 0.24 (0.15–0.34) 0.34 (0.21–0.48) 0.79 (0.65–0.90) 0.44 (0.33–0.56) 0.10 (0.02–0.20)
  1. *Paired t-test to compare the mean scores at baseline and at 6 months after discharge
  2. SD standard deviation, SES standardized effect size, SRM standardized response mean, CI 95% confidence interval
  3. MLHFQ physical subscale scores range from 0 to 40, emotional subscale scores from 0 to 25, and total scores from 0 to 105, with higher scores indicating worse health status. Changes were calculated by subtracting follow-up scores from baseline scores; a positive result indicates a gain in quality of life
  4. abc Superscript letters indicated differences among the three subgroups (improved, equal, and worsened) according to Scheffe’s test for multiple comparisons at P < 0.05