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Table 5 Discriminative validity: Comparison of the of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) scores between normal and primary insomnia groups as determined by clinical interview in Ethiopian university students

From: Psychometric properties of the Epworth sleepiness scale in Ethiopian university students

Items of the ESS Mean p-value
Normal sleepers
(n = 182)
Primary Insomnia
(n = 147)
Sitting and Reading 0.79 ± 0.89 1.14 ± 0.89 <.001
Watching TV 0.41 ± 0.84 0.82 ± 0.94 <.001
Sitting inactive in a public place (i.e., a theatre) 0.50 ± 0.77 1.12 ± 0.94 <.001
As a car passenger for an hour without a break 0.63 ± 0.86 1.39 ± 1.12 <.001
Lying down to rest in the afternoon 1.18 ± 1.14 1.85 ± 0.99 <.001
Sitting and talking to someone 0.34 ± 0.64 0.83 ± 0.92 <.001
Sitting quietly after lunch without alcohol 0.45 ± 0.80 1.09 ± 1.06 . < .001
In a car, while stopping for a few minutes in traffic 0.64 ± 0.92 0.97 ± 0.97 .001
ESS total score* 4.92 ± 3.99 9.20 ± 4.31 <.001
  1. *Mean ± SD, Independent t-test was used for the ESS total score and Mann Whitney U test was applied for item scores