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Table 3 Regression analyses of factors associated with loneliness in the visual impairment (VI) population (n = 736)

From: Loneliness among adults with visual impairment: prevalence, associated factors, and relationship to life satisfaction

  Unadjusteda Adjusteda
Independent variables Beta (95% CI) Beta (95% CI)
Age (years): 18–35 vs. ≥ 66 0.44 (0.05, 0.83) 0.41 (−0.28, 1.11)
36–50 vs. ≥ 66 0.74 (0.37, 1.11) 0.77 (0.12, 1.43)
51–65 vs. ≥ 66 0.20 (− 0.16, 0.56) 0.23 (−0.40, 0.86)
Gender: Female vs. male 0.10 (− 0.17, 0.37) − 0.10 (− 0.36, 0.15)
Education (years): <  11 vs. ≥ 14 0.32 (− 0.07, 0.71) 0.16 (− 0.21, 0.53)
11–13 vs. ≥ 14 0.59 (0.30, 0.88) 0.35 (0.07, 0.62)
Marital status: Single vs. married/partners 0.89 (0.60, 1.17) 0.60 (0.16, 1.03)
Divorced/widowed vs. Married/partners 1.01 (0.64, 1.37) 1.12 (0.64, 1.59)
Household members: 1 vs. ≥ 2 0.66 (0.39, 0.93) −0.10(−0.51, 0.31)
Occupational status: Unemployed vs. employed/studying 0.80 (0.50, 1.10) 0.50 (0.20, 0.81)
Retired vs. employed/studying −0.07 (− 0.41, 0.28) 0.36 (− 0.30, 1.02)
Other impairments: Yes vs. no 0.91 (0.64, 1.19) 0.66 (0.39, 0.92)
VI severity: Severe VI vs. moderate VI 0.28 (−0.03, 0.59) 0.16 (−0.13, 0.46)
Blindness vs. moderate VI 0.37 (0.02, 0.78) 0.39 (0.05, 0.73)
Onset-age VI: Since birth vs. adulthood 0.30 (−0.00, 0.60) 0.09 (−0.22, 0.41)
Childhood/youth vs. adulthood 0.34 (−0.03, 0.72) 0.11 (−0.27, 0.48)
VI stability: Progressive vs. stable 0.13 (−0.17, 0.43) 0.15 (−0.14, 0.43)
Victimized by bullying or abuse: Bullying vs. none 0.92 (0.62, 1.22) 0.76 (0.46, 1.06)
Assaults vs. none 1.18 (0.85, 1.52) 0.77 (0.43, 1.10)
  1. Notes. CIs confidence interval, vs versus
  2. abeta values in bold text indicates statistical significance (p < 0.05)