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Table 1 Demographic and clinical baseline characteristics according to treatment group

From: Health-related quality of life in men with prostate cancer undergoing active surveillance versus radical prostatectomy, external-beam radiotherapy, prostate brachytherapy and reference population: a cross-sectional study

  Active Surveillance (n = 99) Radical prostatectomy (n = 99) External-beam radiotherapy (n = 99) Brachytherapy (n = 99) p-value
Risk group*
 Low risk 74 (74.7%) 74 (74.7%) 74 (74.7%) 74 (74.7%) 1.000
 Intermediate risk 25 (25.3%) 25 (25.3%) 25 (25.3%) 25 (25.3%)  
Age at HRQoL survey, mean (SD), years 70.6 (5.4) 68.2 (5.4) 73.2 (5.3) 71.9 (5.0) 0.065
Elapsed time from treatment selection to HRQoL survey, years
 Mean (SD) 2.6 (1.5) 3.1 (1.9) 2.8 (1.9) 2.9 (1.7) 0.434
 Median [IQR] 2.4 [1.4–3.6] 3.1 [1.0–4.1] 2.0 [1.0–4.1] 3.0 [1.0–4.1]  
 Minimum - Maximum 0.53–7.32 0.45–8.32 0.46–8.32 0.48–7.06  
PSA, mean (SD), ng/ml 6.8 (2.9) 7.3 (2.8) 7.7 (3.0) 7.6 (2.6) 0.087
 PSA ≤ 10 84 (84.8%) 88 (89.8%) 84 (84.8%) 85 (85.9%) 0.709
 PSA > 10 15 (15.2%) 10 (10.2%) 15 (15.2%) 14 (14.1%)  
Gleason score
 2–5 0 12 (12.1%) 30 (30.3%) 28 (28.2%) < 0.001a,b,c
 6 90 (90.9%) 72 (72.7%) 53 (53.5%) 64 (64.6%)  
 7 (3 + 4) 9 (9.1%) 15 (15.2%) 16 (16.2%) 7 (7.1%)  
Clinical stage
 T1a-T1c 78 (78.8%) 71 (71.7%) 68 (68.7%) 80 (80.3%) 0.157
 T2a-T2b 21 (21.2%) 28 (28.3%) 31 (31.3%) 19 (19.2%)  
Comorbidities
 Osteoarthritis or Rheumatism   31 (43.1%) 44 (48.9%) 40 (50.6%) 0.623
 High blood pressure   26 (36.1%) 33 (36.7%) 33 (41.8%) 0.723
 Depression or Mental disorders   13 (18.1%) 12 (13.3%) 17 (21.5%) 0.370
 Chronic respiratory diseases   7 (9.7%) 17 (18.9%) 16 (20.3%) 0.168
 Ischemic heart disease   6 (8.3%) 16 (17.8%) 11 (13.9%) 0.220
 Diabetes mellitus   8 (11.1%) 13 (14.4%) 10 (12.7%) 0.818
 Stroke   2 (2.8%) 3 (3.3%) 4 (5.1%) 0.737
  1. *According to d’Amico prostate cancer risk classification
  2. a: active surveillance vs radical prostatectomy; b: active surveillance vs external-beam radiotherapy; c: active surveillance vs brachytherapy