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Table 5 Coefficients of multivariable linear regression examining the association between nicotine dependence, smoking duration and quality of life among current smokers. Uberaba, Brazil

From: Differences in quality of life among older adults in Brazil according to smoking status and nicotine dependence

Variables WHOQOL-BREF WHOQOL-OLD
Physical Psychological Social relationship Environmental Sensory abilities Autonomy Past, present and future activities Social participation Death and Dying Intimacy
Nicotine dependence
 Very low or low (ref)           
 Medium 3.0 3.8 6.5* 2.9 5.2 −0.6 0.1 2.9 −4.0 1.9
 High or very high −0.0 −1.2 0.1 1.0 −0.7 3.4 2.8 1.4 −10.6** 4.9
Exposure to smoking in years −0.2** − 0.1 − 0.0 −0.1 − 0.1 − 0.1 − 0.1 − 0.1 − 0.0 − 0.3*
Sex
 Female (ref)           
 Male −0.1 2.7 − 0.8 − 0.6 −1.6 1.5 − 1.8 2.7 8.8* 7.3
Age groups
 60–69 years −6.4 −10.0** −6.5 −8.5** −7.1 0.9 −5.6 −2.7 2.3 −10.9
 70–79 years −3.1 −6.3 1.8 −0.1 −3.8 6.3 −1.7 4.1 2.4 −1.5
 80 years or more (ref)           
Education
 Illiterate −2.9 − 2.3 −3.4 − 7.0** − 8.0 −1.8 −1.1 − 2.6 − 2.8 −0.1
 1–4 years of schooling 0.4 5.4* 5.3* −0.4 − 7.8 1.3 −1.1 − 1.5 −9.2** 2.3
Health conditions
 0–4 (ref)           
 5 or more diseases −13.7*** −7.3*** −4.3 −0.7 −9.2** −1.5 0.6 −5.5** −5.6 0.1
Constant 84.9*** 77.1*** 73.8*** 71.0*** 87.1*** 64.8*** 74.2*** 71.1*** 79.3*** 79.0***
R2 0.2474 0.1647 0.1399 0.1373 0.0732 0.0543 0.0340 0.1004 0.1176 0.0701
  1. Note: ref. – reference categories. *P < 0.10; **P < 0.05; ***P < 0.01