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Table 3 Coefficients of multivariable linear regression examining the association between smoking categories and quality of life indicators. Uberaba, Brazil

From: Differences in quality of life among older adults in Brazil according to smoking status and nicotine dependence

  WHOQOL-BREF WHOQOL-OLD
Variables Physical Psychological Social relationship Environmental Sensory abilities Autonomy Past, present and future activities Social participation Death and Dying Intimacy
Smoking categories
 Never smoker (ref)           
 Past smoker −0.1 0.1 −0.0 − 0.4 1.9 0.6 0.1 − 0.5 1.9 −0.6
 Current smoker −1.1 − 1.9 − 1.0 −1.1 −1.7 −2.1 − 0.8 −2.6* 1.8 −3.8*
Sex
 Female (ref)           
 Male 0.4 4.0*** 2.6** 3.0*** −1.8 1.5 1.8 2.3* 2.0 5.9***
Age groups
 60–69 years 2.0 − 0.6 −2.4* −2.4* 5.4** 2.1 0.5 −0.0 −1.8 − 1.2
 70–79 years 2.8** 0.6 −0.0 −0.2 3.7* 2.3* 2.1* 3.6*** −1.4 − 1.0
 80 years or more (ref)           
Education
 Illiterate −6.2*** −4.5*** −0.8 −7.5*** − 6.4*** −4.2*** −2.8* −4.2*** 2.4 −4.4**
 1 to 4 years −4.7*** −3.4*** 0.1 −3.9*** −4.0** − 1.7 − 2.3* − 2.1 1.2 −4.3***
 5 or more (ref)           
Health conditions
 0–4 (ref)           
 5 or more diseases −12.3*** −4.8*** −2.1** −3.7*** − 7.7*** −3.5*** − 1.9* − 4.2*** − 6.0*** − 1.9
Constant 70.9*** 70.5*** 72.8*** 66.8*** 73.9*** 66.4*** 68.9*** 67.4*** 73.7*** 72.3***
R2 0.1545 0.0618 0.0220 0.0718 0.0435 0.0328 0.0176 0.0460 0.0199 0.0360
  1. Note: ref- reference categories
  2. *P < 0.10; **P < 0.05; ***P < 0.01