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Table 3 Univariate and Multilevel Linear Regression showing association between socio demographic variables with Psychological domain of QOL BREF in Abbottabad, Pakistan

From: Assessing the quality of life among Pakistani general population and their associated factors by using the World Health Organization’s quality of life instrument (WHOQOL-BREF): a population based cross-sectional study

Variable Univariate analysis Adjusted analysis
Beta coefficient 95% CI p - value Beta coefficient 95% CI p - value
LL UL LL UL
Fixed – effect parameters
Type of family
 Joint Ra R 0.828
 Nuclear −0.90 − 2.18 0.38 0.168 −0.12 − 1.29 1.03
Type of Residence
 Urban R R 0.033
 Rural −5.08 −6.47 − 3.68 <0.001 −2.79 − 5.34 −0.22
Sex
 Male R R 0.032
 Female −2.76 −4.05 −1.47 <0.001 − 1.51 − 2.89 −0.13
Residence Ownership
 Owner R R 0.980
 Not owner 1.32 −0.84 3.50 0.231 −0.02 −2.15 2.10
Age (decade) −0.11 −0.16 − 0.06 <0.001 − 0.08 −0.14 − 0.02 0.004
Marital Status
 Married R R 0.030
 Widow −11.52 −15.30 −7.731 <0.001 −5.51 −9.04 − 1.98
 Divorced 7.50 .4.28 19.29 0.212 6.30 −4.09 16.71
 Separated 1.55 −9.36 12.47 0.780 −1.51 −11.13 8.10
 Never married 1.48 −0.21 3.18 0.087 0.18 −1.57 1.94
Education
 No Education −7.80 −10.42 −5.19 <0.001 −2.84 −5.52 −0.16 <0.001
 Madressa −0.71 −5.43 4.00 0.767 1.51 −2.90 5.94
 Can read/write −5.38 −8.23 −2.53 <0.001 −1.29 −4.09 1.49
 Primary −1.56 −3.92 0.800 0.195 0.00 −2.29 2.29
 Secondary 1.20 −1.14 3.56 0.314 1.57 −.66 3.79
 Tertiary R R
Disease
 Physical disability −7.67 −13.21 −2.13 0.007 −6.34 −11.29 −1.39 <0.001
 Hypertension −3.71 −6.23 −1.18 0.004 −2.37 −4.97 0.22
 Diabetes −7.66 −11.57 −3.74 <0.001 −5.45 −9.17 −1.73
 Other −3.51 −4.87 −2.16 <0.001 −3.29 −4.99 −1.59
 None R R
Employment status
 Working R R 0.013
 Not Working −3.19 −4.52 −1.88 <0.001 −2.12 − 3.53 −0.70
 Retired −2.90 −6.06 0.27 0.073 −1.20 −4.09 1.67
Socioeconomic status
 High R R < 0.001
 Average −3.22 −4.72 −1.71 <0.001 −2.43 − 3.92 − 0.94
 Low −10.04 −11.55 −8.53 <0.001 −7.84 −9.51 −6.19
Social capital 0.14 0.10 0.19 <0.001 0.12 0.084 0.17 <0.001
Random – effect parameters
   Estimate Std. Err 95% confidence interval
LL UL
Level 1: Union council
 Sex 1.08 0.69 0.30 3.82
 Age 0.02 0.06 0.00 5.61
 Social Capital 0.06 0.01 0.03 0.09
 Constant 0.72 4.32 5.57 9.22
Level 2: Cluster number
 Constant 3.94 0.49 3.08 5.03
 Residual 12.59 0.21 12.18 13.00
  1. aR ., reference
  2. CI confidence interval
  3. Adjusted analysis performed with all variables entered simultaneously into the model
  4. Multiple linear regression was used for analysis and p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant