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Table 2 Univariate and Multilevel Linear Regression showing association between socio demographic variables with Physical domain of QOL BREF in Abbottabad, Pakistan

From: Assessing the quality of life among Pakistani general population and their associated factors by using the World Health Organization’s quality of life instrument (WHOQOL-BREF): a population based cross-sectional study

Variable Univariate analysis Adjusted analysis
Beta coefficient 95% CI p - value Beta coefficient 95% CI p - value
LL UL LL UL
Fixed – effect parameters
Type of family
 Joint Ra R 0.999
 Nuclear −0.28 − 1.60 1.03 0.672 0.00 − 1.20 1.20
Type of Residence
 Urban R R 0.029
 Rural −4.31 −5.76 − 2.87 <0.001 − 2.98 − 5.67 − 2.98
Sex
 Male R R <0.001
 Female −2.90 −4.17 −1.62 <0.001 − 2.39 − 3.80 −0.99
Residence Ownership
 Owner R R 0.69
 Not owner 0.71 −1.51 2.94 0.528 −0.46 −2.66 1.75
Age (decade) −0.23 −0.28 −1.8 <0.001 − 0.18 −.23 −.11 <0.001
Marital Status
 Married R R 0.007
 Widow − 9.1 −13.04 −5.34 <0.001 −2.79 − 6.45 0.87
 Divorced 12.53 0.56 24.51 0.040 10.97 0.17 21.75
 Separated 6.67 −4.42 17.77 0.239 2.74 −7.24 12.74
 Never married 5.50 3.78 7.23 <0.001 2.67 0.84 4.49
Education
 No Education −7.34 −10.02 −4.66 <0.001 −2.04 −4.82 0.74 0.010
 Madressa − 2.37 −7.22 2.48 0.339 −0.38 −4.96 4.21
 Can read / write −4.50 −7.43 −1.57 0.003 −1.20 −4.09 1.69
 Primary −0.59 −3.02 1.83 0.630 0.91 −1.45 3.28
 Secondary 1.44 −0.97 3.86 0.242 1.51 −0.79 3.81
 Tertiary R R
Disease
 Physical disability −10.54 −16.15 −4.93 <0.001 −9.20 −14.34 −4.08 <0.001
 Hypertension −6.78 −9.31 −4.19 <0.001 − 4.81 −7.51 −2.12
 Diabetes −12.64 − 16.61 −8.68 <0.001 − 10.31 − 14.16 − 6.46
 Other −4.37 −5.75 −3.00 <0.001 −4.55 −6.29 −2.80
 None R R
Employment status
 Working R R 0.056
 Not Working −3.23 −4.59 −1.88 <0.001 − 1.75 − 3.21 −.28
 Retired −3.35 −6.60 − 0.15 0.04 −1.38 − 3.21 1.60
Socioeconomic status
 High R R <0.001
 Average −2.82 −4.40 −1.24 <0.001 −1.71 −3.26 −0.17
  Low −7.15 −8.73 −5.57 <0.001 −5.10 − 6.82 −3.38
Social capital 0.10 0.06 0.14 <0.001 0.09 0.05 0.13 <0.001
Random – effect parameters
   Estimate Std. Err 95% confidence interval
LL UL
Level 1: Union council
 Sex 0.69 1.14 0.02 17.15
 Age 0.04 0.03 0.01 0.21
 Social Capital 0.05 0.01 0.02 0.09
 Constant 2.10 1.47 12.67 13.52
Level 2: Cluster number
 Constant 3.54 0.51 2.66 4.70
 Residual 13.09 0.21 12.67 13.52
  1. aR ., reference
  2. CI, confidence interval
  3. Adjusted analysis performed with all variables entered simultaneously into the model
  4. Multiple linear regression was used for analysis and p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant