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Table 1 The characteristics of the study sample and Mean scores of quality of life domains among different subgroups, Abbottabad, Pakistan 2016 (n = 2063)

From: Assessing the quality of life among Pakistani general population and their associated factors by using the World Health Organization’s quality of life instrument (WHOQOL-BREF): a population based cross-sectional study

Variable   Domains of Quality of life (mean ± SD)  
Frequency (%) Physical (2063) Psychological (2063) Relationship (2063) Environmental (2063) General facet
Type of family
Joint 1053 (51.04%) 65.0 ± 15.2 67.9 ± 14.3 72.4 ± 16.8 56.6 ± 14.3 69.2 ± 16.6
Nuclear 1010(48.96) 64.8 ± 15.2 67.0 ± 15.3 71.4 ± 16.0 54.3 ± 15.1 66.9 ± 18.5
Type of Residence
 Urban 598(29%) 68.0 ± 15.7 71.0 ± 14.4 74.09 ± 15.8 59.9 ± 14.2 71.0 ± 16.5
 Rural 1465(71%) 63.7 ± 14.8 65.9 ± 14.7 71.01 ± 16.6 53.7 ± 14.5 67.0 ± 17.9
Sex
 Male 1058 (51.2%) 66.4 ± 15.5 68.7 ± 14.7 72.4 ± 15.8 56.0 ± 14.48 69.7 ± 16.7
 Female 1005(48.7%) 63.5 ± 14.7 66.0 ± 15.1 71.3 ± 17.0 54.8 ± 15.0 66.4 ± 18.3
Age
 <30 720(34.9%) 67.7 ± 14.5 68.38 ± 14.0 71.99 ± 16.1 55.84 ± 14.6 69.7 ± 16.5
 31–40 636(30.8%) 64.6 ± 14.2 67.16 ± 15.1 72.27 ± 16.2 54.57 ± 14.6 68.0 ± 17.8
 41–50 389(18.8%) 64.0 ± 15.4 67.96 ± 14.7 72.38 ± 16.4 55.98 ± 14.5 67.1 ± 18.0
 >50 318(15.4%) 60.38 ± 16.9 64.91 ± 15.8 70.16 ± 17.7 55.52 ± 15.5 65.8 ± 18.8
Residence Ownership
 Owner 1599(77.5%) 64.9 ± 15.2 67.3 ± 14.6 71.9 ± 16.4 55.5 ± 14.7 68.3 ± 17.2
 Not Owner 464 (22.5%) 65.6 ± 15.1 68.6 ± 15.4 71.5 ± 16.6 55.5 ± 14.9 69.6 ± 18.5
Marital Status
 Married 1639 (79.4%) 64.2 ± 14.8 67.4 ± 14.7 72.8 ± 16.1 55.5 ± 14.6 68.3 ± 17.4
 Widow 60 (2.9%) 55.0 ± 17.1 55.9 ± 18.2 61.8 ± 20.6 46.1 ± 14.2 54.3 ± 23.2
 Divorced 6 (2.0%) 76.8 ± 10.0 75 ± 9.1 62.5 ± 15.5 59.9 ± 13.6 70.8 ± 12.9
 Separated 9 (0.4%) 70.9 ± 16.1 69.0 ± 12.6 54.8 ± 28.8 54.5 ± 9.1 71.4 ± 17.2
 Never married 349(16.9%) 69.8 ± 15.1 68.9 ± 14.2 70.0 ± 15.9 56.6 ± 15.0 69.6 ± 16.3
Education
 No education 322(15.6%) 59.0 ± 15.5 61.5 ± 16.5 67.3 ± 17.8 51.4 ± 15.6 60.1 ± 20.8
 Madressa 47(2.2%) 63.9 ± 18.2 68.6 ± 14.3 73.9 ± 12.2 58.3 ± 14.9 70.8 ± 15.0
 Can read/write 211(10.2%) 61.8 ± 15.8 63.9 ± 15.5 68.8 ± 17.5 54.0 ± 14.1 64.8 ± 17.5
 Primary 637(30.8%) 65.7 ± 14.6 67.7 ± 13.9 73.0 ± 15.9 56.3 ± 13.9 68.5 ± 16.8
 Secondary 658(31.8%) 67.8 ± 14.8 70.5 ± 14.0 73.1 ± 15.9 56.7 ± 14.9 71.2 ± 16.1
 Tertiary 188(9.1%) 66.3 ± 13.3 69.3 ± 13.3 74.8 ± 15.4 56.4 ± 14.7 73.2 ± 14.3
Disease
 Physical disability 28(1.4%) 57.5 ± 19.4 62.0 ± 17.3 71.1 ± 10.2 53.8 ± 13.6 63.3 ± 19.2
 Hypertension 154(7.5%) 61.3 ± 16.6 66.0 ± 15.6 70.7 ± 16.6 54.8 ± 16.7 66.1 ± 17.7
 Diabetes 58(2.8%) 55.4 ± 17.7 62.0 ± 17.6 69.3 ± 19.0 52.9 ± 15.8 60.9 ± 21.8
 Other 980(47.5%) 63.7 ± 15.1 66.2 ± 14.8 71.2 ± 16.5 54.6 ± 14.8 67.0 ± 18.3
 None 843(41%) 68.0 ± 13.8 69.7 ± 14.0 73.2 ± 16.2 56.8 ± 14.1 70.5 ± 15.9
Employment status
 Working 1162(56.3%) 66.3 ± 14.2 68.8 ± 13.9 72.3 ± 16.3 55.9 ± 14.4 70.1 ± 16.3
 Not Working 810(39.3%) 63.1 ± 15.9 65.6 ± 15.8 71.2 ± 16.6 54.6 ± 15.1 65.5 ± 18.8
 Retired 91(4.4%) 63.0 ± 18.3 65.9 ± 15.3 73.1 ± 16.6 57.5 ± 14.8 66.5 ± 18.4
Socioeconomic status
 High 687(33.3%) 68.2 ± 14.6 71.8 ± 13.7 75.5 ± 15.3 60.8 ± 13.8 74.4 ± 15.5
 Average 690(33.4%) 65.4 ± 14.9 68.6 ± 13.5 73.5 ± 13.5 56.4 ± 13.5 68.7 ± 15.6
 Low 686(33.3%) 61.1 ± 15.2 63.2 ± 15.3 66.7 ± 15.3 49.3 ± 14.7 61.3 ± 19.0
Social Capital
 High SC 278(13.5%) 66.6 ± 14.6 69.7 ± 13.6 75.1 ± 15.7 58.8 ± 13.8 71.8 ± 16.7
 Moderate SC 1571(76.1%) 65.2 ± 15.1 67.7 ± 14.7 72.1 ± 16.1 55.5 ± 14.4 68.3 ± 17.2
 Low SC 214(10.4%) 61.3 ± 16.2 63.7 ± 16.2 66.7 ± 18.2 50.9 ± 16.6 62.2 ± 19.5
All 2063 65.0 ± 15.2 67.4 ± 15.0 72.0 ± 16.5 55.5 ± 15.0 68.0 ± 18.0
  1. Using the 0–100% scoring method: Mean (SD) [95% Confidence Intervals]. Values are mean ± standard deviation