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Table 1 Characteristics of participants aged 19 and over of KNHANES, 2008–2012

From: The association between paralytic side and health-related quality of life in facial palsy: a cross-sectional study of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2012)

Characteristics Normal
n = 28,040a
N = 34,314,502b
Right palsy
n = 40
N = 30,825
Left palsy
n = 26
N = 21,397
P-value‡
EQ-5D (mean, SE) 0.948 (0.001) 0.905 (0.024) 0.820 (0.051) 0.008
Age, year (mean, SE) 45.562 (0.201) 61.515 (2.516) 61.753 (2.611) < 0.001
Sex, female % 0.505 (0.003) 0.797 (0.069) 0.516 (0.111) 0.005
Education, % 0.193 (0.005) 0.491 (0.097) 0.527 (0.133)  
 Elementary school 0.101 (0.003) 0.172 (0.067) 0.118 (0.095) < 0.001
 Middle school 0.386 (0.005) 0.191 (0.073) 0.199 (0.110)
 High school 0.320 (0.006) 0.146 (0.073) 0.156 (0.093)
 College 0.159 (0.004) 0.302 (0.090) 0.518 (0.119)
House income % 0.262 (0.006) 0.260 (0.093) 0.286 (0.104)  
 Lowest quartile 0.295 (0.005) 0.230 (0.084) 0.105 (0.072) 0.001
 Lower quartile 0.284 (0.006) 0.209 (0.081) 0.091 (0.078)
 Higher quartile 0.252 (0.004) 0.076 (0.052) 0.219 (0.102)
 Highest quartile 0.574 (0.005) 0.288 (0.088) 0.526 (0.112)
Smoking % 0.280 (0.004) 0.287 (0.096) 0.357 (0.101) 0.123
Drinking % 0.178 (0.004) 0.449 (0.097) 0.635 (0.119) 0.010
Stress % 0.066 (0.002) 0.210 (0.089) 0.093 (0.070) 0.749
Hypertension % 0.057 (0.002) 0.018 (0.018) 0.148 (0.103) < 0.001
Diabetes % 0.486 (0.005) 0.651 (0.094) 0.857 (0.075) 0.021
Cancer % 0.948 (0.001) 0.905 (0.024) 0.820 (0.051) 0.179
Other Chronic disease % 45.562 (0.201) 61.515 (2.516) 61.753 (2.611) 0.001
  1. Data are presented as the mean (standard error), or % (standard error). Smoking, drinking, stress variables are dichotomous of current state
  2. aParticipant number of KNHANES
  3. bWeighted number of the Korean population aged ≥19
  4. P-values from t-test or Rao-Scott chi-square test for continuous or categorical variables